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“Teachers must be very skilled, very and exquisitely well-trained, because neither the teacher nor the surgeon can say : ‘ Everybody sit still until I figure out what in the heck we’re going to do next.’’ -Madeline Hunter. Chief Cannasatego Iroquois Confederacy

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Great Seal of the United States

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Great seal of the united states

“Teachers must be very skilled, very and exquisitely well-trained, because neither the teacher nor the surgeon can say :‘Everybody sit still until I figure out what in the heck we’re going to do next.’’ -Madeline Hunter


Great seal of the united states

Chief

Cannasatego

Iroquois

Confederacy

founded in

1500s

Six Indian Nations banding together for the common good.

Great Seal of the United States

“We, the people, to form a union, to establish peace, equity and order…”

-Opening statement of Iroquoian Law


Effective instructional strategies

Effective Instructional Strategies

Objectives:

  • To gain an awareness of classroom instructional strategies which have a positive effect on student achievement.

  • To gain an understanding of why each of these instructional strategies are so effective.

    Classroom Instruction that Works: Research-Based Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement

    by Robert Marzano, Debra Pickering & Jane Pollock


Overarching concept

Overarching Concept

  • Relevance - In order for students to learn something it must be relevant to their real lives.

  • Engagement- In order for students to learn something they must feel safe and be actively engaged in the learning.

    BRAIN THEORY

    Memory = Connections

    • Nothing we learn can stand in isolation.

    • New learning has to be related to what we already know.


How do messages travel through the brain

Survival

Emotions

Learning

How Do Messages Travel Through the brain?

Learning and Memory: The Brain by Marilee Sprenger.

in Action


4 ways learners in take information

4 ways Learners in take information

Modalities of Learning

Teachers must…

  • Engage at least two of these modalities

    OR

  • Engage one of these modalities coupled with an emotional experience.


What is real life teaching

What is real life teaching?

List of Prohibited Words

heherhers

himhisI

ititsyou

meminemy

myselfourshe

theirthemthey

uswewho

whomyouyours


What is real life teaching relating the skills to the real lives of students

What is real life teaching?Relating the skills to the real lives of students.

Teacher A - PRONOUNS

Teacher B - PRONOUNS

  • Definition - A pronoun takes the place of a noun.

  • Example Sentences

  • List pronouns

  • Identify pronouns by underlining them in a sentence.

  • List of pronouns posted

  • Students are asked to complete a variety of activities without using the posted words.

    • Tell something about themselves.

    • Write a sentence about themselves

    • Read a paragraph.

    • Have a conversation.

  • Why are these words so important in our language?


Key steps for long term memory storage

The teacher must carefully think through the instructional sequence and build in opportunities for the students to interact with the information in a relevant and meaningful manner.

Key Steps for Long Term Memory Storage


Great seal of the united states

Active emotional engagement appears to be the KEY to learning.


Learning connections

Nothing we learn can stand in isolation.

New learning has to be related to what we already know.

Only the student themselves can make the information their own.

The teacher must carefully think through the instructional sequence and build in opportunities for the students to interact with the information in a relevant and meaningful manner.

Learning = Connections


Jumbles

Jumbles

When you

rearrange

the letters . . .

“SNOOZE ALARMS”

becomes:

ALAS! NO MORE Z’s


Instructional strategies

Instructional Strategies


Retention rate after 24 hours

Retention Rate – after 24 hours

“Tell me and I forget.

Teach me and I remember.

Involve me and I learn.”

-Benjamin Franklin


Which strategies give teachers the most bang for the buck

Which strategies give teachers the “Most Bang for the Buck”?

  • What Do You Think Are the Most Effective Instruction Strategies?

    Classroom Instruction That Works:Research-Based Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement

    by Robert Marzano, Debra Pickering, Jane Pollock


Key steps for long term memory storage1

Key Steps for Long Term Memory Storage

  • Making

  • Connections (short-term memory to working memory)


  • Setting objectives and providing feedback

    Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback

    • Setting objectives gives students a direction for learning.

      • Focus on the BIG ideas

    • Giving feedback keeps students moving in the right direction.

      • Corrective; Timely; Specific

    Students begin thinking about where this new information will fit into the schemata of their brain.


    Nonlinguistic representations

    Nonlinguistic Representations

    • Symbols

    • Pictures

    • Models

    • Mental Pictures – Imagery

    • Kinesthetic Activity

      Connect words to pictures, actions, or images.

      The brain needs imagery to store words.


    Great seal of the united states

    Condensation

    Students should be

    involved in creating

    their own nonlinguistic

    representations.

    Water Droplet + Dust = Cloud Formation

    Precipitation

    Evaporation


    Cues questions and advance organizers

    Cues, Questions and Advance Organizers

    • Help students…

      Retrieve, Use or Organize

      …what they already know about a topic.

    • Educators must develop cues, questions and

      advance organizers which…

      Focus on the most important concepts/skills.

      Require high level thinking skills.

      Are well organized.

      Used effectively they guide the thinking process so learners can “see” how the new information connects to their prior knowledge.


    Great seal of the united states

    How do each of the instructional

    strategies listed below assist students in making connections to new information?

    • Setting Objective and Providing Feedback

    • Non-linguistic Representation

    • Cues, Question and Advance Organizers

    The teacher must plan with the end outcome in mind in order to have the information, resources and questions prepared to effectively guide students through the learning process.


    Key steps for long term memory storage2

    Key Steps for Long Term Memory Storage

    • Relevance

    • Making it their own.

    • (Working Memory to Long-term Memory)


    Student interaction

    Student Interaction

    • Allows students to…

      • Interact with one another in order to process their learning.

      • Discover new insights.

      • Catch misconceptions.

      • Practice using and retrieving information from their long-term memory.

      • Be actively engaged in their learning.


    Summarizing and note taking

    Summarizing and Note Taking

    Enhances students’ ability to recode and reorganize information to make it their own.

    • Summarizing helps students process the most important information.

      • Summary Frames (Limits students to specific questions/topics addressed in their summaries.)

      • Describe the Lesson in 10 words or less

    • Note taking organizes important information to be remembered.

      • Present students with a variety of note taking formats.

        The best tools for identifying and understanding the MOST IMPORTANT aspect of what they are learning.


    Great seal of the united states

    • Why is it so important for students to recode new

    • information and make it their own?

    • How do the instructional strategies listed below assist

    • students in “making meaning” of new information?

      • Student Interaction

      • Summarizing and Note Taking


    Key steps for long term memory storage3

    Key Steps for Long Term Memory Storage

    • Learning

    • Using information in new situations.

    • (Working Memory to Long-term Memory)

    • AND

    • (Long-term Memory to

    • Working Memory)


    Homework and practice

    Homework and Practice

    • The purpose of homework should be identified and articulated

      • PRACTICE – structured around content with which students have a high degree of familiarity.

        • A skill needs to be practiced at least 24 times to mastered.

        • Practice should be spread out over time.

        • Practice develops the conceptual understanding of a skill.

      • PREPARATION for New Content

      • ELABORATION on New Content

    • Homework should contain feedback.


    Generating and testing hypotheses

    Generating and Testing Hypotheses

    • When students explain their thinking they deepen their understanding of concepts.

    • Gives students practice using their new knowledge in novel situations. (LEARNING)


    The path to learning

    THE PATH TO LEARNING

    INFORMATION ASSOCIATIONS

    MEMORY CONNECTIONS

    THINKING LEARNING


    Great seal of the united states

    Behavioral

    Instructional

    Strategy


    Reinforce effort provide recognition

    Reinforce EffortProvide Recognition

    • Reinforcing effort enhances students’ understanding of the relationship between effort and achievement.

    • Recognition shows students that effort pays off.


    Reinforce effort provide recognition1

    Reinforce EffortProvide Recognition

    Effort Rubric

    Achievement Rubric

    4 = I worked on this task until it was completed and viewed difficulties as a way to strengthen my understanding of the concept/skill.

    3= I worked on the task until it was completed. I pushed myself to continue working even when difficulties arose.

    2 = I put effort into the task, but I stopped working when it became difficult.

    1 = I put very little effort into the task.

    4 = I exceeded the objectives of the task/lesson.

    3= I met the objectives of the task/lesson.

    2 = I met some of the objectives of the task/lesson.

    1= I did not meet the objectives of the task/lesson.


    Great seal of the united states

    THE

    Most

    Effective

    Instructional

    Strategy…


    Identifying similarities and differences

    Identifying Similarities and Differences

    • Make new connections

    • Experience new insights

    • Correct misconceptions

      Effective Forms

      • comparing /contrasting

      • classifying

      • creating metaphors

      • creating analogies

        The brain storesinformation based on similarities.

        The brain retrieves information based on differences.


    Great seal of the united states

    • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=W0fJKvdjQgs&feature=related

      Are you a teacher or an educator?


    Great seal of the united states

    Resources

    Marzano, R., Pickering, D. & Pollock, J. ( 2001). Classroom instruction that works: Research-based strategies for increasing student achievement. Alexandria, Virginia: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

    Sprenger, M. ( 2005). How to teach so students remember. Alexandria, Virginia: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

    Spenger, M. (1999). Learning & memory: the brain in action. Alexandria, Virginia: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

    Teri L. Johnson

    Director of Special Services

    St. Michael-Albertville Schools

    [email protected]


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