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Rural-urban Migration and its Implications for Food Security in Bangladesh. Institution: Department of Statistics, Shahjalal University of Science and Technology (SUST). Research Team: Dr. Md. Zakir Hossain, PI Professor, Dept of Statistics, SUST Dr. M. Mizanul Haque Kazal, CI
its Implications for Food
Security in Bangladesh
Institution: Department of Statistics,Shahjalal University of Science and Technology (SUST)
Dr. Md. Zakir Hossain, PI
Professor, Dept of Statistics, SUST
Dr. M. Mizanul Haque Kazal, CI
Chairman, Dept of Development & Poverty Studies, SAU
Mr. Jasim Uddin Ahmed, CI
Associate Professor of Economics, Moulvibazar Govt. College
(i)Identification of migration diversity through exploring the typology and mapping of its patterns,
(ii)Determination of food security status of the migrant households and impact of migration on their food security,
(iii)Review of Asian literature to find out evidence on the association of food security, rural urban migration and poverty reduction,
(v)Formulation of intervention to address food security of migrant households.
The study has adopted following techniques to gather the primary data:
In addition, the study has analyzed the HIES-2010 and Panel data of Dr. Mahbub Hossain to compare the relevant findings of the survey data.
Sample Design for Household Level Survey & Tracer Survey
- 1500 Migrant and 750 Non-migrant households at origin
- 500 Migrant and 250 Non-migrant households under Tracer survey
Step-1: Measure the flow of migration including selectivity
The flow of rural-urban migration has been explored through descriptive statistics in different dimensions including flow-mapping.
Step-2: Measurement of the status of food security
(i) Perception analysis; (ii) Direct calorie intake (DCI);
(iii) Food expenditure; (iv) Coping strategy index (CSI) score
Step-3: Identification of the predictors of food insecurity
The binary multiple logistic regression model (BLRM) has been applied to identify the predictors of food insecurity.
Step-4: Impact of migration on food security
Where FS measures the per capita calorie-intake as a proxy food security status at the household level; Mig measures the number of migrants per household; X vector encompasses the household characteristics; Z is a vector of instruments
3-stage NELM Models
The basic equation for household income,(as a proxy of household food security) according to the NELM hypothesis can be expressed as
k = on-farm, off-farm;
To model migration, this study considers using count regression functional form, particularly the Poisson distribution form, since the number of migrants is non-negative.
Are the food insecure households more prone to migration?Comparison of some basic indicators between migrant (non-migrant in 2000 and migrated during 2001-2008) and non-migrant households (non-migrant since 2000) using panel data
Age distribution of migrants for survey data and panel data
Educational status at the time of migration for Three Data Sets
Destination of the migrants by region
Dependent Variable: Logarithm of per capita calorie intake
Endogenous Variables: Number of migrants in the household
Instrumental variables:Migration network, Share of male/female in 16-39
age groups at household level
Dependent Variable: On-farm income; Off-farm income without remittance
Endogenous Variables: No of migrants in the HH; Amount of annual remittance
Instrumental variables:Migration network, Share of male/female in 16-39 age groups at household level, Relation of the migrants with household head
About three-fifths of the migrants sent remittances (average amount of Tk.38397) and household heads mainly decide to utilize remittances.