Chapter 10
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Chapter 10. Licit and Illicit Drug Use. Defining Addictions. patterned use and dependency on mind or mood altering substances interferes with academic/work family interpersonal relationships social/economic functioning physical/mental health.

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Chapter 10

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Chapter 10

Chapter 10

Licit and Illicit Drug Use


Defining addictions

Defining Addictions

  • patterned use and dependency on mind or mood altering substances

  • interferes with academic/work

  • family

  • interpersonal relationships

  • social/economic functioning

  • physical/mental health


Chapter 10

The Physiology of Addiction- mental, emotional, and Behavioural function occur due to biochemical reactions between nerve cells and thebody

  • Neurotransmitters - biochemical messengers that exert influence at specific receptor cites on nerve cells

  • drugs can alter these cites - change moods / fill insufficient amounts

  • Tolerance - over time needing greater amounts of substance


The addictive process

The Addictive Process

  • avoid unpleasant feeling or situation

  • nurturing through avoidance

  • coping skills not developed

  • addiction increases

  • relationships deteriorate


Signs of addiction four common symptoms

Signs of AddictionFour Common Symptoms

Compulsion / Obsession

excessive preoccupation with the behaviour / overwhelming need to perform it

Loss of Control - inability to predict consequences of behaviour as healthy or damaging

Negative Consequences - physical damage, legal trouble, financial, academic failure

Denial - inability to perceive behaviour is self-destructive


Types of drugs stimulate depress hallucinate

Types of Drugsstimulate / depress / hallucinate

  • prescription drugs

  • OCT preparations

  • recreational substances

  • herbal preparations

  • illicit drugs

    Psychoactive drugs

  • Mood / behaviour altering


Routes of administration of drugs how the drug is taken into the body

Routes Of Administration of Drugs …how the drug is taken into the body

  • Oral Injestion - mouth

  • Injection - hupodermic needle

  • Intravenous injection - vein

  • Intramuscular injection - muscles

  • Subcutanious injection- fat below skin


Routes of administration of drugs how the drug is taken into the body1

Routes Of Administration of Drugs …how the drug is taken into the body

  • Inhalation - nostrils

  • Suppositories - inserted into anus or vagina - melt at body temp.

  • Inunction - through skin


Drug use abuse and interactions

Drug Use, Abuse, and Interactions

  • drug misuse - using drug for other reasons than intended

  • drug abuse - excessive use

  • Environmental factors- main-effect & side-effect

  • Set and Setting


Individual response to psychoactive drugs set setting

Individual Response to Psychoactive DrugsSET & SETTING

  • Set - how the person thinks……. Mindset - while under the influence

  • physical, emotional and social factors / work together or against to influence the drug’s effect

  • Setting - external factors / drug taken in a quiet place vs. a loud party


Drug interactions

Drug Interactions

  • Polydrug use - multiple medication / illicit drugs - simultaneously

  • Synergism - two or more drugs taken….produce different effect

  • Antagonism - two or more drugs working on same receptor site


Drug interactions1

Drug Interactions

  • Inhibition - drugs compete for same receptor site / reduce effectiveness of each one

  • Intolerance - two or more drugs produce uncomfortable symptoms

  • Cross - tolerance - developed tolerance to one drug that reduces effectiveness of similar drug


Prescription drugs types

Prescription DrugsTypes

  • Antibiotics - fight bacteria / infections

  • Analgesics - pain relievers

  • Prostaglandin inhibitors - inhibit production & release / associated with pain from arthritis+ menstruation

  • Sedatives - CNS - Induces sleep / reduces anxiety


Prescription drugs types1

Prescription DrugsTypes!!!

  • Tranquilizers - CNS depressants / relax body + calm anxiety

  • Antidepressants - used to treat clinically diagnosed depression

  • Amphetamines - stimulants / associated dangers

  • Rebound effects - withdrawal from stimulants / serious / depression, nausea, violence

  • Generic Drugs - chemical names not brand names


Over the counter oct drugs

Over-the-Counter (OCT) Drugs

Nonprescription Drugs

  • self-diagnoses / self-treatment

  • Safe? Abuse? Harmful!!!!!!

    Types:

  • Analgesic / pain killers / use common + wide spread

  • Cold, Cough, Allergy, and Asthma Relievers - Don’t cure / reduce symptoms

  • Stimulants - used to keep awake! All night paper writing - students


Over the counter otc drugs

Over-the-Counter (OTC) Drugs

  • Sleeping Aids and Relaxants - induce sleepy/ drowsy feeling

  • Dieting Aids - “appetite suppressant” - a stimulant which can be dangerous

  • Sympathomimetics - induce stress reaction


Over the counter oct drugs1

Over-the-Counter (OCT) Drugs

Laxatives - softens stool +

relieves constipation

  • use for weight loss / ineffective

    Diuretics - promotes increased urination - for weight loss ineffective / water replenished and creates chemical imbalances


Illicit drugs illegal to possess produce or sell

Illicit Drugs…… illegal to possess, produce or sell

  • Although illegal widely used and remains a problem in Canada

  • Controlled Substances

  • Cocaine - powerful stimulant - leaves from South American Shrub -3.8% casual use 1.4% regular in Canada

  • Effects…….

  • Serious results to physical, mental and social health


Illicit drugs illegal to possess produce or sell1

Illicit Drugs…… illegal to possess, produce or sell

  • Amphetamines - addictive stimulant that improve alertness, lessen fatigue and improve mood

  • Marijuana - chopped leaves + flowers from cannabis - heightens reactions to environmental stimuli


Illicit drugs illegal to possess produce or sell2

Illicit Drugs…… illegal to possess, produce or sell

  • Hashish - thick / sticky resin from cannabis plant

  • Marijuana and Medicine - used to reduce nausea in cancer patients and to reduce eye pressure for glaucoma


Illicit drugs illegal to possess produce or sell3

Illicit Drugs…… illegal to possess, produce or sell

  • opiates

  • narcotics (Greek for Stupor) are derived from the parent drug opium

  • opium - made from milky juice of poppy seeds

  • morphine - pain reliever

  • codeine - found in cough medicine and painkillers


Illicit drugs illegal to possess produce or sell4

Illicit Drugs…… illegal to possess, produce or sell

  • Heroin - illegally manufactured from morphine / injected into blood stream

  • Methadone Maintenance -treatment for people addicted to opiates - synthetically produced


Illicit drugs illegal to possess produce or sell5

Illicit Drugs…… illegal to possess, produce or sell

Psychedelics - distort sensory information

Reticular formation - relay information to other parts of the brain

Synesthesia - sensory messages are misinterpreted

Hallucinations - images perceived as real but are not


Illicit drugs illegal to possess produce or sell6

Illicit Drugs…… illegal to possess, produce or sell

  • Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) - causes sensory disruptions - “ACID”

  • Mescaline - hallucinogenic drug

  • Peyote - cactus / has parts that create hallucinogenic effects

  • Psilocybin - chemical in mushroom causes hallucinogenic effects


Designer drugs synthetically produced drug similar effects to illicit drugs

Designer Drugs - Synthetically produced drug / Similar effects to Illicit Drugs

Manufactured by

underground chemists

Three types available

analogues

  • phencyclidine (PCP)

  • amphetamine

  • methamphetamine


Inhalants sniffed or inhaled

Inhalants - sniffed or inhaled

Amyl Nitrate - “poppers or rush”

  • a vasodilator - used to enhance orgasm / fainting, dizziness, warmth, skin flushing

    Nitrous Oxide - “laughing gas” creates a state of euphoria / floating / illusions

  • overdose - unconsciousness, coma or death


Steroids artificial forms of testosterone promotes muscle growth strength

Steroids - artificial forms of testosterone / promotes muscle growth + strength

  • Ergogenic aid

  • Athletic performance

  • Recreational use widespread to look a certain way- BIG!

  • Adverse effects - mood swings (“roid rage”), acne, liver tumors, higher cholesterol levels, hypertension,kidney disease, immune system weakening

  • HIV - shared needles!!!


Steroids artificial forms of testosterone promotes muscle growth strength1

Steroids - artificial forms of testosterone / promotes muscle growth + strength

  • Women - masculine traits / lowered voice, increased facial + body hair , male pattern baldness, enlarged clitoris, decreased breast size, changes to menstrual cycle


Steroids artificial forms of testosterone promotes muscle growth strength2

Steroids - artificial forms of testosterone / promotes muscle growth + strength

  • Men - shuts down body’s natural production of testosterone

  • develop breasts

  • testicles atrophy

  • Is it Worth it????


Drugs are they worth it

Drugs: Are They Worth IT?

  • The impact to society is devastating!!!!!

  • Crime

  • Relationships

  • School / Work

  • Lifestyle

  • Health

  • Fun

  • Denial

  • What is the REAL problem??


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