The scientific method
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The Scientific Method. Steps to the Scientific Method ( PRHEAD ). P roblem  State the problem R esearch H ypothesis form a hypothesis E xperiment design & conduct experiment A nalyze Collected Data D raw Conclusion support or reject hypothesis. P-Problem  State the Problem.

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The Scientific Method

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The scientific method

The Scientific Method


Steps to the scientific method prhead

Steps to the Scientific Method(PRHEAD)

  • Problem State the problem

  • Research

  • Hypothesis form a hypothesis

  • Experiment design & conduct experiment

  • Analyze Collected Data

  • Draw Conclusion support or reject hypothesis


P problem state the problem

P-Problem  State the Problem

  • Gives you a reason for doing the experiment

  • This question MUST be testable/measurable

    • Ex: Which car oil will allow my car to get the best gas mileage?


Process it testable or not

Process It…Testable or Not?

Do cats make better pets than dogs?


Process it testable or not1

Process It…Testable or Not?

How do different types of movement/activity affect human heart rate?


Process it which is testable

Process It…Which is testable?

  • Which is the tastiest soda?

  • How many people will choose Dr. Pepper over Coke?


R research

R-Research

  • In order to make an educated guess (hypothesis), you need to find out more information about the problem you are trying to solve.

  • Ex: research various oils and their properties.


H hypothesis form a hypothesis

H-Hypothesis  form a hypothesis

  • A hypothesis is an educated guess about the solution to your problem based on your research.

  • This is done with an “if / then” statement. .

  • Ex: If I use Havoline car oil then my Lamborghini Diablo will get better gas mileage.


Hypothesis must be

Hypothesis MUST be:

  • Testable/ Fact-based-“Dr. Pepper is the tastiest soda” is not fact-based, it’s based on opinion, and therefore can not be a hypothesis.

  • A sentence, not a question!!


Process it testable or not2

Process It…Testable or Not?

If I use Havoline car oil then it will be better than Mobile Oil.


Process it testable or not3

Process It…Testable or Not?

  • If I use Havoline car oil then my Lamborghini Diablo will get better gas mileage.


E experiment design and conduct experiment

E-Experiment  Design and conduct experiment

  • This is done to test the hypothesis.

  • Design an experiment that will provide data to support or reject your hypothesis.

    • Ex: Test four different car oils found during research


Parts of an experiment

Parts of an Experiment

  • Independent Variable – The part of an experiment that you change.

  • EX: car oil

  • Dependent Variable- What you are recording/observing. It changes according to how the independent variable changes

  • Ex: gas mileage

    • ONLY test one variable at a time!!!!!!!!!!


Parts of an experiment1

Parts of an Experiment

  • Constant variables- quantities that remain constant (the same) aka “controlled variables”

  • Ex: same car, same road

  • Control group- what is used to COMPARE the results to. It is the variable in which no independent variable has been applied.

  • Ex: test run with the original brand of oil in the car


A analyze collected data

A-Analyze Collected Data

  • Observations are recorded facts about what you see during the experiment.

    • Graph: IV’s go on the x-axis

      DV’s go on y-axis


D draw conclusion support or reject hypothesis

D-Draw Conclusion Support or reject hypothesis

  • This is a brief statement about the results of the experiment.

  • In the conclusion state if the hypothesis was correct (supported) or incorrect (rejected).

  • Claim, evidence, reasoning


The scientific method

  • TYPES OF DATA


Observation or inference

Observation or Inference

Observation- See with own eyes(ex; the apple is red, it is raining outside, the window is 6ft long

Inference:What you think might be true but not sure.

(ex: She is wiping her eyes, she is crying, He has hair on his shirt, he owns a cat)


Types of observations

Types of Observations

  • Qualitative – Results are descriptive.

    • ex: the litmus paper turned red

  • Quantitative – Results are numerical and have a unit.

    • ex: 5 meters, 45 seconds


Accuracy vs precision

Accuracy vs Precision

  • Accuracy- nearness to the actual value

  • Precision- how close the data is together


The scientific method

Accuracy and precision: the target example

Precise, but not accurate


The scientific method

Accuracy and precision: the target example

Accurate, not precise


The scientific method

Accuracy and precision: the target example

Neither accurate, nor precise


The scientific method

Accuracy and precision: the target example

Accurate and precise


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