The Scientific Method - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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The Scientific Method. Steps to the Scientific Method ( PRHEAD ). P roblem  State the problem R esearch H ypothesis form a hypothesis E xperiment design & conduct experiment A nalyze Collected Data D raw Conclusion support or reject hypothesis. P-Problem  State the Problem.

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The Scientific Method

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The Scientific Method

• Problem State the problem

• Research

• Hypothesis form a hypothesis

• Experiment design & conduct experiment

• Analyze Collected Data

• Draw Conclusion support or reject hypothesis

P-Problem  State the Problem

• Gives you a reason for doing the experiment

• This question MUST be testable/measurable

Process It…Testable or Not?

Do cats make better pets than dogs?

Process It…Testable or Not?

How do different types of movement/activity affect human heart rate?

Process It…Which is testable?

• Which is the tastiest soda?

• How many people will choose Dr. Pepper over Coke?

R-Research

• In order to make an educated guess (hypothesis), you need to find out more information about the problem you are trying to solve.

• Ex: research various oils and their properties.

H-Hypothesis  form a hypothesis

• A hypothesis is an educated guess about the solution to your problem based on your research.

• This is done with an “if / then” statement. .

• Ex: If I use Havoline car oil then my Lamborghini Diablo will get better gas mileage.

Hypothesis MUST be:

• Testable/ Fact-based-“Dr. Pepper is the tastiest soda” is not fact-based, it’s based on opinion, and therefore can not be a hypothesis.

• A sentence, not a question!!

Process It…Testable or Not?

If I use Havoline car oil then it will be better than Mobile Oil.

Process It…Testable or Not?

• If I use Havoline car oil then my Lamborghini Diablo will get better gas mileage.

E-Experiment  Design and conduct experiment

• This is done to test the hypothesis.

• Design an experiment that will provide data to support or reject your hypothesis.

• Ex: Test four different car oils found during research

Parts of an Experiment

• Independent Variable – The part of an experiment that you change.

• EX: car oil

• Dependent Variable- What you are recording/observing. It changes according to how the independent variable changes

• Ex: gas mileage

• ONLY test one variable at a time!!!!!!!!!!

Parts of an Experiment

• Constant variables- quantities that remain constant (the same) aka “controlled variables”

• Ex: same car, same road

• Control group- what is used to COMPARE the results to. It is the variable in which no independent variable has been applied.

• Ex: test run with the original brand of oil in the car

A-Analyze Collected Data

• Observations are recorded facts about what you see during the experiment.

• Graph: IV’s go on the x-axis

DV’s go on y-axis

D-Draw Conclusion Support or reject hypothesis

• This is a brief statement about the results of the experiment.

• In the conclusion state if the hypothesis was correct (supported) or incorrect (rejected).

• Claim, evidence, reasoning

• TYPES OF DATA

Observation or Inference

Observation- See with own eyes(ex; the apple is red, it is raining outside, the window is 6ft long

Inference:What you think might be true but not sure.

(ex: She is wiping her eyes, she is crying, He has hair on his shirt, he owns a cat)

Types of Observations

• Qualitative – Results are descriptive.

• ex: the litmus paper turned red

• Quantitative – Results are numerical and have a unit.

• ex: 5 meters, 45 seconds

Accuracy vs Precision

• Accuracy- nearness to the actual value

• Precision- how close the data is together

Accuracy and precision: the target example

Precise, but not accurate

Accuracy and precision: the target example

Accurate, not precise

Accuracy and precision: the target example

Neither accurate, nor precise

Accuracy and precision: the target example

Accurate and precise