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PMD 101. Frank Effenberger Huawei Technologies. Introduction. Two issues involve the interaction of PMD speed and sensitivity FEC link rate increase Dual rate OLT receivers This presentation is meant to describe, in a simple way, the basic design of PMDs

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Pmd 101

PMD 101

Frank Effenberger

Huawei Technologies


Introduction
Introduction

  • Two issues involve the interaction of PMD speed and sensitivity

    • FEC link rate increase

    • Dual rate OLT receivers

  • This presentation is meant to describe, in a simple way, the basic design of PMDs

  • This should allow the membership to make educated judgments when choosing alternatives that impact speed/sensitivity


Photodetectors
Photodetectors

  • PIN diode

    • Responsivity (A/W)

    • Dark current (nA)

    • Intrinsic capacitance (pF)

    • Transit time (ps)

  • APD

    • All the above, plus…

    • Gain ()

    • Excess Noise Factor ()


Noise and the first amplifier
Noise, and the first amplifier

  • There are several noise sources

    • RIN noise (from the transmitter)

    • Shot noise (from signal and dark current)

    • Excess noise (from avalanche gain process)

    • Thermal noise (from the circuit itself)

  • In PIN receivers, thermal noise dominates

  • In APDs, shot and excess noise play a role

  • The SNR out of the first amplifier tells the story in any (properly designed) circuit


Trans impedance amplifier
Trans-Impedance Amplifier

  • All modern optical PMDs use this topology

  • The key idea is that the amplifier’s gain reduces the effective impedance as regards the speed of response

  • Thus, a higher impedance value can be used (better SNR) while maintaining a high response speed (faster)


Circuit

_

+

Circuit

Vb

R

C

Ip

B2 =

final LPF

A

Vout


Signal to noise ratio
Signal to Noise Ratio

  • When thermal noise limited,

    • SNR ~ Ps2R/B2 ~ (Ps/B1) (Ps/B2)

    • For a fixed SNR: Ps~(B1B2)1/2

  • When shot noise limited,

    • SNR ~ Ps/B2

    • For a fixed SNR: Ps~B2


The dual rate problem
The dual-rate problem

  • Signals come in at different rates

  • OLT must either

    • Parallel process signal at both speeds (and decide later which was right), or

    • Serially process signals at one speed

  • This decision has to do with choice of detector technology, and whether we are thermal noise limited or shot noise limited


Parallel pmd circuit

_

+

Parallel PMD Circuit

Vb

R

C

1Gb/s

Signal

10 Gb/s

signal

Ip

B21 =

1 GHz LPF

A

B22 =

8 GHz LPF

Thermal-limited:

Shot-limited:


Serial pmd circuit

_

+

Serial PMD Circuit

Vb

Control

signal

R2

R1

C

1Gb/s

Signal

10 Gb/s

signal

Ip

B21 =

1 GHz LPF

A

B22 =

8 GHz LPF

Thermal-limited:

Shot-limited:


Comparison of serial and parallel
Comparison of Serial and Parallel

  • In shot-limited case, there is no difference

    • Pre-amp circuit does not impact SNR

  • In thermal-limited case, the Parallel circuit 1G SNR is degraded by factor B1/B12 = 8

    • Constant SNR power penalty = 4.5 dB

  • Practical APD receivers fall midway between these two extremes

    • Avalanche multiplication factor optimized around M=10



Serial and parallel with optimized apds
Serial and Parallelwith optimized APDs

  • For an optimized APD:

    • SNR~ Ps4/3 / (B11/3B2)

    • For a fixed SNR: Ps~ (B1B23)1/4

  • The Parallel circuit 1G SNR is degraded by (B1/B12)1/3= 2

    • Constant SNR power penalty = 2.25 dB


Overall conclusions
Overall Conclusions

  • Dual rate optics present us with a choice:

  • Implement the ‘serial’ circuit approach

    • No sensitivity penalty

    • Complexity of transimpedance control

  • Implement the ‘parallel’ circuit approach

    • Simpler transimpedance amplifier

    • Approximately 2~3 dB sensitivity penalty (APD) or 4.5dB penalty (pin)


Sensitivity versus speed fec
Sensitivity versus Speed (FEC)

  • For a normal receiver, B1=B2=B

  • We can see that SNR=f(P/B) for a receiver with an optimized pre-amp

  • So, a 0.28 dB increase in speed will require a 0.28 dB increase in received power for a constant SNR


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