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Diabetes. What is Diabetes?. A disease in which there are high levels of sugar in the blood. Three types of Diabetes: Type 1 Type 2 Gestational Diabetes affects more than 20 million Americans and over 40 million Americans have pre-diabetes. What causes Diabetes?.

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Presentation Transcript
what is diabetes
What is Diabetes?
  • A disease in which there are high levels of sugar in the blood.
  • Three types of Diabetes:
    • Type 1
    • Type 2
    • Gestational
  • Diabetes affects more than 20 million Americans and over 40 million Americans have pre-diabetes.
what causes diabetes
What causes Diabetes?
  • When your body doesn’t produce enough insulin, resistance to insulin, or both.
  • Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas to control blood sugar.
symptoms
Symptoms
  • Vision changes
  • Excess thirst
  • Fatigue
  • Frequent urination
  • Hunger
  • Weight loss
  • Tingling or numbness in hands or feet
  • Feeling very tired much of the time
  • More infections than usual
  • Very dry skin
  • Sores that are slow to heal
type i diabetes
Type I Diabetes
  • Previously called, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus or juvenile-onset diabetes.
  • Pancreas cannot produce insulin.
  • Glucose (sugar) is built up in the bloodstream instead of going to the cells for energy.
  • Most often diagnosed in children, adolescents, and young adults.
  • Makes up about 5% of diagnosed cases of diabetes.
type ii diabetes
Type II Diabetes
  • Previously called, non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus or adult-onset diabetes.
  • When your fat, liver, and muscle cells do not respond correctly to insulin. (Insulin resistance)
  • Sugar can not enter cells so it builds up in the blood.
  • Makes up for 90-95% of diagnosed cases of diabetes.
  • Keeping a healthy diet and active lifestyle can help prevent type II diabetes.
gestational diabetes
Gestational Diabetes
  • Only pregnant women can get this type of diabetes.
  • Pregnancy hormones block insulin from doing its job.
  • Can cause problems in the mother and baby if not treated.
  • Develops in 2-10% of pregnancies.
  • Usually disappears when pregnancy is over.
what is cancer
What is Cancer?
  • Uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells.
  • New cells grow when your body doesn’t need them and old cells don’t die off when they should.
  • Extra cells form a mass called a tumor.
  • Tumors:
    • Benign- non-cancerous
    • Malignant- cancer
  • Can develop in almost any organ or tissue.
general signs and symptoms
General Signs and Symptoms
  • Unexplained Weight Loss
  • Fever
  • Fatigue
  • Pain
  • Skin Changes
  • There are more specific symptoms with different types of cancers.
causes of cancer
Causes of Cancer
  • Benzene and other chemicals
  • Drinking excess alcohol
  • Environmental toxins
  • Excessive sunlight exposure
  • Genetic problems
  • Obesity
  • Radiation
  • Viruses
  • The cause of many cancers are still unknown
common cancers
Common Cancers
  • Men in the United States:
    • Prostate
    • Lung
    • Colon
  • Women in the United States:
    • Breast
    • Colon
    • Lung
  • Most common cancer-related death is from lung cancer.
other types of cancers
Other Types of Cancers
  • Brain cancer
  • Cervical cancer
  • Hodgkin\'s lymphoma
  • Kidney cancer
  • Leukemia
  • Liver cancer
  • Non-Hodgkin\'s lymphoma
  • Ovarian cancer
  • Skin cancer
  • Testicular cancer
  • Thyroid cancer
  • Uterine cancer
common tests
Common Tests
  • Biopsy of the tumor
  • Blood tests (which look for chemicals such as tumor markers)
  • Bone marrow biopsy (for lymphoma or leukemia)
  • Chest x-ray
  • Complete blood count (CBC)
  • CT scan
  • MRI scan
treatments
Treatments
  • Surgery
  • Radiation- uses high energy to kill tumor cells without harming healthy cells.
  • Chemotherapy- Uses drugs to kill cancer cells.
what is cardiovascular disease
What is Cardiovascular Disease?
  • Narrowing or blockage of the coronary arteries (blood vessels that supple blood to the heart).
  • Atherosclerosis- plaque builds up in the walls of arteries.
  • Leading cause of death in the United States for men and women.
  • In the United States, someone has a heart attack every 34 seconds. Each minute, someone in the United States dies from a heart disease-related event.
types of cardiovascular disease
Types of Cardiovascular Disease
  • Coronary Artery Disease (most common)
    • Plaque buildup in your coronary arteries that leads to blockages.
    • Can cause heart attacks.
  • Stroke
    • Ischemic stroke (most common stroke)- blood vessel that feeds to the brain gets blocked.
    • Hemorrhagic stroke- blood vessel in the brain bursts from uncontrolled hypertension.
  • Heart Failure
    • Heart doesn’t pump blood as well as it should be.
  • Arrhythmia
    • Abnormal rhythm of the heart.
  • Heart Valve Disease
    • Heart valves don’t open enough to allow blood to flow as well as it should be.
treatment
Treatment
  • Heart Valve Problems
    • Medications
    • Heart Valve Surgery
  • Arrhythmia
    • Medications
    • Pacemaker
    • Cardiac Defibrillation
  • Heart Attack
    • Medications
    • Coronary Angioplasty (procedure to open blocked or narrow arteries)
    • Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery (surgery to improve blood flow to the heart)
  • Stroke
    • Medications
    • Carotid Endarterectomy (surgery to remove fatty deposits blocking the arteries)
risk factors
Risk Factors
  • High cholesterol
  • High blood pressure
  • Diabetes
  • Cigarette smoking
  • Overweight and obesity
  • Poor diet
  • Physical inactivity
  • Alcohol use
prevention
Prevention
  • Control your blood pressure
  • Lower your cholesterol
  • Don\'t smoke
  • Get enough exercise
  • Eat a healthy diet
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