Diabetes
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Diabetes. What is Diabetes?. A disease in which there are high levels of sugar in the blood. Three types of Diabetes: Type 1 Type 2 Gestational Diabetes affects more than 20 million Americans and over 40 million Americans have pre-diabetes. What causes Diabetes?.

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Diabetes

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Diabetes

Diabetes


What is diabetes

What is Diabetes?

  • A disease in which there are high levels of sugar in the blood.

  • Three types of Diabetes:

    • Type 1

    • Type 2

    • Gestational

  • Diabetes affects more than 20 million Americans and over 40 million Americans have pre-diabetes.


What causes diabetes

What causes Diabetes?

  • When your body doesn’t produce enough insulin, resistance to insulin, or both.

  • Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas to control blood sugar.


Symptoms

Symptoms

  • Vision changes

  • Excess thirst

  • Fatigue

  • Frequent urination

  • Hunger

  • Weight loss

  • Tingling or numbness in hands or feet

  • Feeling very tired much of the time

  • More infections than usual

  • Very dry skin

  • Sores that are slow to heal


Type i diabetes

Type I Diabetes

  • Previously called, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus or juvenile-onset diabetes.

  • Pancreas cannot produce insulin.

  • Glucose (sugar) is built up in the bloodstream instead of going to the cells for energy.

  • Most often diagnosed in children, adolescents, and young adults.

  • Makes up about 5% of diagnosed cases of diabetes.


Type ii diabetes

Type II Diabetes

  • Previously called, non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus or adult-onset diabetes.

  • When your fat, liver, and muscle cells do not respond correctly to insulin. (Insulin resistance)

  • Sugar can not enter cells so it builds up in the blood.

  • Makes up for 90-95% of diagnosed cases of diabetes.

  • Keeping a healthy diet and active lifestyle can help prevent type II diabetes.


Gestational diabetes

Gestational Diabetes

  • Only pregnant women can get this type of diabetes.

  • Pregnancy hormones block insulin from doing its job.

  • Can cause problems in the mother and baby if not treated.

  • Develops in 2-10% of pregnancies.

  • Usually disappears when pregnancy is over.


Cancer

Cancer


What is cancer

What is Cancer?

  • Uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells.

  • New cells grow when your body doesn’t need them and old cells don’t die off when they should.

  • Extra cells form a mass called a tumor.

  • Tumors:

    • Benign- non-cancerous

    • Malignant- cancer

  • Can develop in almost any organ or tissue.


General signs and symptoms

General Signs and Symptoms

  • Unexplained Weight Loss

  • Fever

  • Fatigue

  • Pain

  • Skin Changes

  • There are more specific symptoms with different types of cancers.


Causes of cancer

Causes of Cancer

  • Benzene and other chemicals

  • Drinking excess alcohol

  • Environmental toxins

  • Excessive sunlight exposure

  • Genetic problems

  • Obesity

  • Radiation

  • Viruses

  • The cause of many cancers are still unknown


Common cancers

Common Cancers

  • Men in the United States:

    • Prostate

    • Lung

    • Colon

  • Women in the United States:

    • Breast

    • Colon

    • Lung

  • Most common cancer-related death is from lung cancer.


Other types of cancers

Other Types of Cancers

  • Brain cancer

  • Cervical cancer

  • Hodgkin's lymphoma

  • Kidney cancer

  • Leukemia

  • Liver cancer

  • Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

  • Ovarian cancer

  • Skin cancer

  • Testicular cancer

  • Thyroid cancer

  • Uterine cancer


Common tests

Common Tests

  • Biopsy of the tumor

  • Blood tests (which look for chemicals such as tumor markers)

  • Bone marrow biopsy (for lymphoma or leukemia)

  • Chest x-ray

  • Complete blood count (CBC)

  • CT scan

  • MRI scan


Treatments

Treatments

  • Surgery

  • Radiation- uses high energy to kill tumor cells without harming healthy cells.

  • Chemotherapy- Uses drugs to kill cancer cells.


Cardiovascular disease heart disease

Cardiovascular Disease(Heart Disease)


What is cardiovascular disease

What is Cardiovascular Disease?

  • Narrowing or blockage of the coronary arteries (blood vessels that supple blood to the heart).

  • Atherosclerosis- plaque builds up in the walls of arteries.

  • Leading cause of death in the United States for men and women.

  • In the United States, someone has a heart attack every 34 seconds. Each minute, someone in the United States dies from a heart disease-related event.


Types of cardiovascular disease

Types of Cardiovascular Disease

  • Coronary Artery Disease (most common)

    • Plaque buildup in your coronary arteries that leads to blockages.

    • Can cause heart attacks.

  • Stroke

    • Ischemic stroke (most common stroke)- blood vessel that feeds to the brain gets blocked.

    • Hemorrhagic stroke- blood vessel in the brain bursts from uncontrolled hypertension.

  • Heart Failure

    • Heart doesn’t pump blood as well as it should be.

  • Arrhythmia

    • Abnormal rhythm of the heart.

  • Heart Valve Disease

    • Heart valves don’t open enough to allow blood to flow as well as it should be.


Treatment

Treatment

  • Heart Valve Problems

    • Medications

    • Heart Valve Surgery

  • Arrhythmia

    • Medications

    • Pacemaker

    • Cardiac Defibrillation

  • Heart Attack

    • Medications

    • Coronary Angioplasty (procedure to open blocked or narrow arteries)

    • Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery (surgery to improve blood flow to the heart)

  • Stroke

    • Medications

    • Carotid Endarterectomy (surgery to remove fatty deposits blocking the arteries)


Risk factors

Risk Factors

  • High cholesterol

  • High blood pressure

  • Diabetes

  • Cigarette smoking

  • Overweight and obesity

  • Poor diet

  • Physical inactivity

  • Alcohol use


Prevention

Prevention

  • Control your blood pressure

  • Lower your cholesterol

  • Don't smoke

  • Get enough exercise

  • Eat a healthy diet


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