The smart grid enabling energy efficiency and demand response clark w gellings
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The Smart Grid Enabling Energy Efficiency and Demand Response Clark W. Gellings. Chapter 1: What is the Smart Grid?. Brevard Community College ETP1400 Distributed Electrical Power Generation and Storage Bruce Hesher 433-5779. What is the Smart Grid?.

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The smart grid enabling energy efficiency and demand response clark w gellings

The Smart GridEnabling Energy Efficiency and Demand ResponseClark W. Gellings

Chapter 1: What is the Smart Grid?

Brevard Community College

ETP1400 Distributed Electrical Power Generation and Storage

Bruce Hesher

433-5779


What is the smart grid

What is the Smart Grid?

  • A bi-directional electric and communications network that improves the reliability, security, and efficiency of the electric system for small to large scale generation, transmission, distribution, and storage. “Smart Grid Dictionary Plus”

A smart grid is a form of electricity network using digital technology. A smart grid delivers electricity from suppliers to consumers using two-way digital communications to control appliances at consumers' homes; this could save energy, reduce costs and increase reliability and transparency if the risks inherent in executing massive information technology projects are avoided. The "Smart Grid" is envisioned to overlay the ordinary electrical grid with an information and net metering system, that includes smart meters. Wikipedia


The smart grid enabling energy efficiency and demand response clark w gellings

  • The use of sensors, communications, computational ability, and control in some form to enhance the overall functionality of the electrical power delivery system. p1


The smart grid enables electrinet sm

The Smart Grid Enables ElectriNetSM

  • ElectriNetSM (electricity network) is the guiding concept for marrying the Smart Grid with low carbon, central generation, local energy networks and electric transportation.

  • It recognizes the evolution of the power system into a highly interconnected, complex, and interactive network of power systems, telecommunications, the Internet, and electronic commerce applications.

The move toward more competitive electrical power markets is envisioned to enable consumer choice and dollar votes in terms of price, power quality, and fuels used to generate power.


Intelligrid sm

IntelligridSM

  • Realizing the ElectriNetSM requires developing the IntelligridSMcommunications architecture to enable connectivity between each element of the ElectriNetSM.

  • An agent based software model to predict and react to power demand is envisioned.

  • EPRI's IntelliGridSM initiative is creating the technical foundation for a smart power grid that links electricity with communications and computer control to achieve tremendous gains in reliability, capacity, and customer services. A major early product is the IntelliGridSM Architecture, an open-standards, requirements-based approach for integrating data networks and equipment that enables interoperability between products and systems.

  • See www.intelligrid.epri.com


Local energy networks p4

Local Energy Networks p4

  • Examples of local energy networks include: a factory, a neighborhood, or a group buildings. They facilitate the functionality of the ElectriNetsm. They incorporate the sensing, monitoring, and data that enables the local area’s power to be self-healing, secure, self-correcting, etc.

  • Local energy networks increase the independence, flexibility, and intelligence for optimizing the performance of energy use and management at the local level.

  • With the move to decentralized electric production, local energy networks will provide the ability to produce more power close to where it is consumed.


Electric transportation

Electric Transportation

  • Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV’s) can be recharged during low cost off-peak hours. PHEV’s represent both a controllable load and on-site storage of electricity.

  • With 72% of U.S. oil consumption going to transportation, electric vehicles represent an opportunity to reduce dependency on foreign oil and for consumers to save money. Current technology can run a PHEV on the equivalent of 75¢ per gallon gasoline!

They draw power at a rate of 1.4-2KW which is easily supplied by standard home wiring. Note that a standard 20A, 120V socket is 2.4KW.

Chevy Volt


Low carbon central generation

Low-Carbon Central Generation

  • An essential component of the ElectriNetsm is low-carbon central generation. There will be a need for large scale central electricity production for the foreseeable future.

  • The ElectriNetsm makes possible multiple central generation sources linked by high voltage connections. If it is a good production day at the wind farm or a sunny day at the photovoltaic power plant that energy can be used.

  • The Smart Grid will help to provide long distance, low loss transmission as well as local storage.


What should be the attributes of the smart grid

What Should Be the Attributes of the Smart Grid?

In order for the ElectriNetSM to be realized the following attributes are needed;

  • Absolute reliability of supply.

  • Optimal use of bulk power generation and storage in combination with distributed resources and controllable / dispatchable consumer loads to assure lowest cost.

  • Minimal environmental impact of electricity production and delivery.


The smart grid enabling energy efficiency and demand response clark w gellings

  • Reduction in electricity used in the generation of electricity and an increase in the efficiency of the power delivery system and in the efficiency and effectiveness of end users.

  • Resiliency of supply and delivery from physical and cyber attacks and major natural phenomena (hurricanes, earthquakes, tsunamis, etc.)

  • Assuring optimal power quality for all consumers who require it.

  • Monitoring of all critical components of the power system to enable automated maintenance and outage prevention.


Why do we need a smart grid p7

Why Do We Need a Smart Grid? p7

  • The grid has not grown as fast as power production and use. Congestion, outages, roving brown-outs have resulted. If the grid is not improved this trend will accelerate.

  • The traditional grid is designed for centralized production and downstream distribution. Modern generation is increasingly distributed.

  • Traditional generation plants can be reliably scheduled, but renewable resources tend to work on their own schedules.

  • Technology that can improve power distribution that was not available when the traditional grid was designed and built is now available.


Is the smart grid a green grid p12

Is the Smart Grid a “Green Grid” ? p12

  • There are environmental impacts to power production. Global warming due to increased levels of CO2 in the atmosphere might be one of them. The scientific community is not in agreement over CO2 and global warming / climate change. Google “climategate”.

  • Most people agree that pollution is bad and we should be good stewards of the Earth. Sulfur, ash, and other pollutants in the atmosphere and deforested land due to strip mining are issues.

  • The Smart Grid and the renewable energy sources that it enables are environmentally friendly. Lower transmission and distribution losses means less coal and oil needs to be burnt to meet our needs.


Alternative views of a smart grid p14

Alternative Views of a Smart Grid p14

  • Just as there is more than one definition of the Smart Grid, there is more than one vision of what the Smart Grid should be. There are many technology options that could be used.

Capgemini’s Vision (www.capgemini.com/energy): Focus should be on 4 main activities:

1. Gather Data: from many sources on the grid.

2. Analysis / forecasting: the data for operational and business purposes.

3. Monitor / Manage / act: an operational system that triggers predefined procedures that log or take action.

4. Rebuild the grid to support bi-directional power flow.


The smart grid enabling energy efficiency and demand response clark w gellings

  • IBM’s Vision (www.ibm.com/iibv): Taken from consumer perspective. Not all customers are the same. There will be a steady progression toward a “Participatory Network” of intelligent network connected devices, distributed generation, and consumer management tools.

IntelliGridSM (www.epri-intelligrid.com): A consortium created by EPRI to pave the way to the IntelliGridSM. Partners are utilities, manufacturers, and representatives of the public.

Objective: greater consumer choice and rapid advances in communications, computing, and electronics are promoting similar changes in the power industry. A growing knowledge-based economy requires a digital power delivery system that links information technology with energy delivery.


The smart grid enabling energy efficiency and demand response clark w gellings

The Modern Grid Strategy (www.netl.doe.gov): The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Lab (NETL) is the manager of the Modern Grid Strategy (MGS). There function is to foster a national vision for the grid among all stakeholders. p19

  • GridWiseTM (www.ElectricDistribution.ctc.con): The Electric Grid Distribution program of the DOE supports distribution grid modernization, through development and use of advanced sensor, communication, control and information technologies to enable GridWiseTM operations of all distribution systems and components for interoperability and seamless integration. p19


The smart grid enabling energy efficiency and demand response clark w gellings

  • General Electric Vision (www.gepower.com): GE sees the smart grid as a family of network control systems and asset-management tools, empowered by sensors, communication pathways and information tools.

UK SuperGen Initiative (www.supergen-networks.org.uk): A consortium that has recognized two broad challenges: First, there are engineering problems created by embedding renewable energy sources into a distribution network and second there is a need to develop a market and regulatory environment to encourage the use of renewables.

The Galvin Initiative (www.galvinpower.org): Inspired and sponsored by Robert Galvin (former CEO of Motorola). Wants to achieve a consumer focused power system that never fails.


The smart grid enabling energy efficiency and demand response clark w gellings

Electricite de France (EDF) Power-Strada: EDF proposes to “invent the smart grid”. It defines it as integrating distributed energy resources with dispersed intelligence and advanced automation. p23

  • European Union Smart Grid (www.smartgrids.eu): The EU is undertaking various activities to overcome barriers to the development of smart grids in Europe. p24


Conclusion

Conclusion

  • No one definition of the smart grid prevails. A better name might be “smarter grid”. A variety of approaches are presented. There is a common them of improving the overall functionality of the power delivery system. Some approaches advocate incremental change while others concentrate on automation. All approaches envision a system which improves the environment, enhances the value of electricity, and improves the quality of life.

The electric grid was designed and built using technology of the 40’s and 50’s. It has since been expanded but not modernized much. Applying modern technology will improve its efficiency and function.


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