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Demand Response (DR) & Energy Efficiency. "The least expensive kilowatt is the one not used," Joe Desmond, Chairman of CEC. Dennis J. Charlebois, P.E., Ph.D . V.P. Marketing & Technology Energy Facts (US). US - 2004 – 4.0 Trillion KWh consumed (+2%)

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demand response dr energy efficiency
Demand Response (DR) & Energy Efficiency

"The least expensive kilowatt is the one not used," Joe Desmond, Chairman of CEC.

Dennis J. Charlebois, P.E., Ph.D.

V.P. Marketing & Technology

energy facts us
Energy Facts (US)
  • US - 2004 – 4.0 Trillion KWh consumed (+2%)
      • 23 Million barrels oil (-17%)
      • 485 Billion Cu Ft of natural gas (+6%)
energy facts us1
Energy Facts (US)
  • Lighting
      • 30% of institutional building\'s energy use
      • 40% of a school\'s total energy use
  • Space heating/cooling
      • 37% of a typical government building\'s energy
      • Government agencies in the United States spend > $10 billion a year – 1/3 goes to waste.
      • Healthcare organizations spend > $6 billion
      • K-12 spend > $6 billion — more than is spent on textbooks and computers combined! ENERGY STAR rated schools cost forty cents per square foot less to operate than the average school
      • Higher Ed ~ $2 billion. Energy management can lower their energy bills by 30% or more

US Dept of Energy

energy facts ca
Energy Facts (CA)
  • In Summer 2004 (per CEC report to Senate)
      • ISO Peak demand records were set 7 times in spite of average weather conditions.
      • 2004 peak demand was at a level projected for 2006.
      • Southern California had insufficient reserves on several days
      • Transmission bottlenecks reduced access to available capacity which was needed to serve demand.
      • Reliability was at risk due to failure to secure deliverable resources in advance.

California Energy Commission

energy facts ca1
Energy Facts (CA)
  • Energy Efficiency Successes
      • In California since 2001 - Energy savings > 1,000 Megawatts (MW) a year
      • In 2001, CA state office buildings cut energy use by an average of 22%, including a 26% reduction in one month.
      • California\'s Department of General Services benchmarked 35 buildings in 2001; 3 achieved Energy Star status
      • A new state complex in Sacramento, the Capitol Area East End, is expected to save $429,000 annually in energy costs as a result of its sustainable and energy-efficient design and construction.
      • Many cities, counties and special districts in California reduced energy use in their facilities by at least 15% - ie. City of Poway retrofitted traffic lights with energy-efficient LEDs ~ 71% energy savings

US Dept of Energy

2005 california energy outlook
2005 California Energy Outlook
  • 2005 through 2008 predicted to be “very tight”…large gaps anticipated
  • Add’l Generation will not fill the gap
  • Retirements will exacerbate the problem
  • Transmission capacity is questionable
  • Bay Area Econ Forum is predicting Power Crisis (2001)
  • CEC is pushing Demand Response as first line of defense
  • Additional Risks;
      • Higher than expected economic growth…higher demand
      • Higher than expected forced outages.
      • Lower than expected imports.
      • Regional “heat storm”.
      • Reduced hydro resources.
      • Higher than expected congestion.
      • Transmission closures due to forest fires.

*Sources – California Energy Commission Update Report Feb 2005; BAEF “Lightning Strikes Twice-California Faces Real Risk of Second Energy Crisis – August 2004

2005 cec plans
2005 CEC Plans
  • Ensure load serving entities to forward purchase sufficient resources to maintain reliability.
  • Augment demand response (DR) programs.
  • Augment energy efficiency programs.
  • Ensure successful utility procurement processes.
  • Accelerate construction of permitted power plants.
  • Add additional peak generation capacity
  • Identify and expedite transmission upgrades feasible for 2005.
  • Emphasize public education and voluntary reduction efforts.
c e c takes action with dr
C.E.C. Takes Action with DR
  • The Demand Response Research Center (LBNL/Purdue Joint Venture)
      • Research on how to do Demand Response
      • Covers technologies, policies, programs, strategies and practices
      • Price response scenarios are modeled
        • time-of-use rates
        • dynamic pricing
        • demand bidding programs
two types of dr
Two Types of DR
  • “Call-Type” Programs
      • Participants commit load reductions
      • Penalties if commitments not met
      • Rebates to customer for shed loads at peak
      • Comprehensive Baseline for each customer is needed
  • “Quote-Type” Programs
      • Participation is voluntary
      • Customers decide day-to-day on what they will/won’t do
      • No penalties
      • Dynamic Pricing is essentially a quote type DR
why is dr important
Why is DR Important?
  • Helps avoid rolling blackouts
  • Customers can capture preferred energy pricing
  • Reduces environmental impact
  • Helps offset generation retirements
  • Helps offset generation shortfalls
  • Helps offset transmission overload
how is dr accomplished
How is DR Accomplished?
  • Manual Demand Response – Light Switches & HOA’s
          • Labor intensive
          • Requires human intervention
          • Moderate overall impact
  • Semi-Automated – Existing Building Automation Systems
          • Preprogrammed responses
          • Requires human intervention
          • Relies on availability
how is dr accomplished1
How is DR Accomplished?
  • Fully Automated – BAS & Energy Management Information System
      • No human intervention
      • Signal dependent
      • Reliable outcome
      • Measurable & Verifiable
real savings gsa oakland
Real Savings – GSA Oakland

Regression Model

Power [kW]


issues affecting dr
Issues Affecting DR
  • Transparency of Energy Costs
      • Accuracy and availability of data
      • Telephone/Pager/Email does not fill obligation
  • Shedding needs to be obligated
      • Grid operator requires reliability from DR participants
  • Ramifications need to be understood
      • User must understand all load opportunities and historical consumption profiles
      • Tools required to analyze portfolio
      • Focus on least intrusive impact to building occupants
issues affecting dr1
Issues Affecting DR
  • Connectivity to Energy Consuming Equipment
      • Human intervention minimized
      • Signal must link to response
  • Sophisticated Decision Making
      • Automation is essential
      • Rules-Engine needed to drive response(s)
      • Multiple scenarios need to be mapped and tested under varying conditions
issues affecting dr2
Issues Affecting DR
  • Measurability and Verifiability
      • Need to be able to verify curtailment obligation (for financial settlement)
      • M&V tools can normalize data for Weather and Billing Period
  • Integration of Unlike Systems/Equipment
      • DR Strategies must incorporate multiple vendors
  • Anywhere, Anytime Access is needed
      • Web-Enabled/LAN accessibility
      • Real-time systems availability
preparation for dr
Preparation for DR
  • OBJECTIVES – Readiness, Responsiveness, Minimal Impact
      • Evaluate readiness of complete Portfolio of County Bldgs
        • Understanding the facility(ies) and what is available to be involved in the program
      • Quantify Demand Response Capabilities
        • Manual vs Automatic
      • Identify Energy Conservation Measures
      • Evaluate & Prepare Financial Indicators – IRR, ROI, etc
          • One-time & Recurring costs
          • Savings (Reduced consumption, Rebate programs)
      • Comprehensive Application Plan
          • Turnkey Automated Response to STAGE 1,2,3 Alerts
demand response lbnl study
Demand Response – LBNL Study
  • Motivations for Demand Response
    • Improve grid reliability
    • Flatter system load shape
    • Lower wholesale and retail electricity costs
  • Method
    • Provide fictitious dynamic XML-based electric prices with 15-minute notification
    • Program building EMCS & EIS to receive signals & respond
    • Document building shed using EMCS & metered data

California Energy Commission\'s Public Interest Energy Research (PIER)

long term benefits
Long Term Benefits
  • Proactive & Instantaneous response to Alerts & Pricing signals
  • Demonstrated leadership by early adopters
  • Reduced County energy costs
      • Energy Costs
      • Long Term Cost of Ownership
  • Favorable Environmental Impact
  • Measurable and Verifiable Results for all to see
  • The tools to deliver Continuous Improvement
energy conservation examples
Space Setpoint Changes

CHW/CDW/SAT Temp Reset

Occupancy Control

Demand Control Ventilation

CO Control (garages)

VAV/VFD fan speed control

Optimal Start/Stop

Equipment Sequencing (ie. chillers)

Cooling Tower Control (fans)

Night Ventilation

Economizer/Free Cooling

Lighting controls (time)

Dimming controls

Occupancy Sensors

Lighting sweeps

Load Shedding/Load Rolling

Demand Peak limiting

Thermal Storage

Distributed Generation


Lighting Retrofits/Upgrades

HVAC/BAS Recommissioning

Utility Rate Optimization

Energy Conservation Examples

Accomplished through DR

next steps for dr
Next Steps for DR
  • Findings (forthcoming report:
      • Demonstrated feasibility of fully automated shedding
      • XML and related technology effective
  • Next Steps: Evaluate Performance of Current Test Sites
      • In hot weather
      • Participation in DR programs
      • Annual benefits at each site & through enterprise
  • Beyond Test Sites
      • What other strategies offer kW savings & minimal impact?
      • How could automation be scaled up?
      • What are costs for such technology?
      • What is statewide savings potential?
      • What is value of fully automated vs manual DR?
dr resources
DR Resources
  • Demand Response Research Center
    • Forthcoming site
  • Current CEC Demand Response Sites
    • Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions (CERTS)

    • Center for the Study of Energy Markets (CSEM)


    • Demand Response Enabling Technology Development (DRETD)


yamas inc
Yamas Inc.
  • Facility Systems & Technical Services
  • Open, Non-Proprietary Systems Integrator
  • 52 year old California based Company
  • National coverage– 13 offices East & West
  • $60 Million in revenues annually
  • 400 employees
  • Significant installed systems base
yamas businesses
Yamas Businesses

Bldg Systems

Building Services

  • Energy Management
  • Lighting Control
  • Electronic Access Control
  • Alarm Monitoring
  • Environmental Control
  • Temperature, Humidity, Pressure
  • Air Quality
  • Smoke Control
  • System Integration (BAS, ERP)
  • Network Design
  • System Modernization
  • System Migration
  • Preventative Maintenance
  • Repairs & Replacements
  • HVAC Diagnostics
  • Mechanical Maintenance
  • Help Desk
  • Training
  • Recommissioning
  • Parts Warehouse
  • Technical Support
  • Remote Diagnostics
  • Dispatch Call/Center
  • Extended Warranty
  • Network Services

Data Services

Energy Services

  • Data Aggregation
  • Data Trending/Reporting
  • Database Maintenance
  • Software Support
  • Hosted Applications
  • Field Workforce Automation
  • Configuration Management
  • Application Rationalization
  • Demand Response Programs
  • Energy Audits
  • Energy Retrofits
  • HVAC Retrofits
  • Financing
  • LEED
  • Energy/Utility Analysis
  • Energy Management
yamas locations serving ca
Yamas Locations Serving CA


San Francisco


Los Angeles


Las Vegas

how yamas can help
How Yamas Can Help
  • Rationalize BAS Systems
      • Assessment and migration towards Open Systems
      • Multiple BAS Vendor Integration
      • Smart Integration with mech/elect equipment
  • Recommissioning (Retro-Commissioning)
      • Improves Environment of Care Comfort Conditions
      • Reduces Demand Maintenance Costs
      • Supports JCAHO Continuous Readiness Principles
      • Uncovers new Energy Conservation possibilities
      • Positions Facility for Dynamic Pricing
how yamas can help1
How Yamas Can Help
  • Enhanced Automation & Control
      • Capitalizes on Existing Infrastructure
      • Improves the Potential for Energy Cost Reduction
  • Other Items
      • Utility/Consumption Analysis
      • Conservation Benchmarking
      • Load Profiling, Trending, Modeling
      • Optimization of Control Strategies for Real-Time Energy Pricing
      • Training & Education
      • EMS Application/Software Analysis
      • Configuration Management
Eliminates Manual Intervention
      • Meets reliability obligation
  • Delivers the Appropriate Information
      • The tools to perform critical analysis
  • Provides Consuming Equipment View
      • Significantly broadens shed options
  • Automates Decision Making
      • Signal can drive curtailment options
  • Can be Measured and Verified
      • Demonstrates the curtailment obligation
  • Offers Access from Anywhere
      • Allows anytime system fine tuning