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Aerobic Metabolism. Summary of Anaerobic Glycolysis. Glucose + 2 ADP + 2 P i. 2 Lactate + 2 ATP + 2 H 2 O + 2 H +. Energetics of Fermentation. Glucose ——> 2 Lactate Glucose + 6 O 2 ——> 6 CO 2 + 6 H 2 O. ∆G o’ = -200 kJ/mol ∆G o’ = -2866 kJ/mol.

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summary of anaerobic glycolysis
Summary of Anaerobic Glycolysis

Glucose + 2 ADP + 2 Pi

2 Lactate + 2 ATP + 2 H2O + 2 H+

energetics of fermentation
Energetics of Fermentation

Glucose ——> 2 Lactate

Glucose + 6 O2 ——> 6 CO2 + 6 H2O

∆Go’ = -200 kJ/mol

∆Go’ = -2866 kJ/mol

Most of the energy of glucose is still

available following glycolysis!

carbon atom oxidation
Carbon Atom Oxidation

CH2 —> CH2OH —> C=O —> COOH —> CO2

Lactate

Glucose

oxidation reduction reactions electron transfer
Oxidation-Reduction Reactions:Electron Transfer

Substrate —> NAD+ or FAD —> Electron Carriers —> O2

Electron Transport

Oxidative Phosphorylation

summary of citric acid cycle
Summary of Citric Acid Cycle

Acetyl-CoA + 3 NAD+ + FAD + GDP + Pi

2 CO2 + 3 NADH + 3H+ + FADH2 + GTP + CoA-SH

acetyl coa
Acetyl-CoA

Thioester

sources of acetyl coa
Sources of Acetyl-CoA
  • Carbohydrates (sugars via glycolysis)
  • Fats (fatty acids)
  • Proteins (amino acids)
pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex
Pyruvate Dehydrogenase(Multienzyme Complex)
  • E1: Pyruvate Dehydrogenase or Pyruvate Decarboxylase
  • E2: Dihydrolipoyl Transacetylase
  • E3: Dihydrolipoyl Dehydrogenase
multienzyme complexes
Multienzyme Complexes
  • Enhanced reaction rates
  • Channeling of reaction intermediates
  • Coordinate regulation
pyruvate dehydrogenase mammalian enzyme
Pyruvate Dehydrogenase(Mammalian Enzyme)
  • E1, E2, and E3
  • E3 binding protein
  • Kinase (regulation)
  • Phosphatase (regulation)
reduction of lipoamide
Reduction of Lipoamide

E2

E2

Figure 17-7

mechanism of pyruvate dehydrogenase decarboxylation of pyruvate
Mechanism of Pyruvate Dehydrogenase(Decarboxylation of Pyruvate)

Same mechanism as Pyruvate Decarboxylase

slide35

Remainder

of Reaction

mechanism of pyruvate dehydrogenase oxidation of e 3 fadh 2
Mechanism of Pyruvate Dehydrogenase(Oxidation of E3–FADH2)

E3–FADH2 + NAD+ ——> E3–FAD + NADH + H+

regulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase
Regulation of Pyruvate Dehydrogenase
  • Product Inhibition (competitive)
    • NADH
    • Acetyl-SCoA
  • Phosphorylation/Dephosphorylation
    • PDH Kinase: inactivation
    • PDH Phosphatase: activation
regulation of pdh kinase inactivates pdh by phosphorylation
Regulation of PDH Kinase(Inactivates PDH by phosphorylation)
  • Activators of PDH Kinase
    • NADH
    • Acetyl-SCoA
  • Inhibitors of PDH Kinase
    • Pyruvate
    • ADP
    • Ca2+ (high Mg2+)
    • K+
regulation of pdh phosphatase activates pdh by dephosphorylation
Regulation of PDH Phosphatase(Activates PDH by Dephosphorylation)
  • Activators of PDH Pase
    • Insulin
    • Mg2+
    • Ca2+
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