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## PowerPoint Slideshow about ' R* Trees' - makara

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R* Trees Completely Dynamic

- Variant of R-tree
- Supports point and spatial data efficiently at the same time
- Implementation cost only slightly higher than that of other R-trees.
- Supports map-overlay operation – Spatial Join
- E.g. of Spatial Join queries: Two spatial relations S1 and S2, find all pairs: x in S1, y in S2 s.t. x rel y = true where rel = intersect, inside etc.

R*-tree

- Optimization Criteria:
- (O1) Area covered by an index MBR
- (O2) Overlap between index MBRs
- (O3) Margin of an index rectangle
- (O4) Storage utilization

- Sometimes it is impossible to optimize all the above criteria at the same time!

Difference between R* Trees and R Trees

- Optimization in ChooseSubTree module for leaf nodes
- Revised Node-Split Algorithm
- Forced Reinsertion at Node Overflow

ChooseSubTree for Insertion

- ChooseSubtree:
- If next node is a leaf node, choose the node using the following criteria:
- Least overlap enlargement
- Least area enlargement
- Smaller area

- Else
- Least area enlargement
- Smaller area

- If next node is a leaf node, choose the node using the following criteria:
- Perform better especially inQueries with small query rectangles on datafiles with non-uniformly distributed small rectangles or points

Split Node

- SplitNode
- Choose the axis to split
- Choose the two groups along the chosen axis

- ChooseSplitAxis
- Along each axis, sort rectangles and break them into two groups (M-2m+2 possible ways where one group contains at least m rectangles). Compute the sum S of all margin-values (perimeters) of each pair of groups. Choose the one that minimizes S

- ChooseSplitIndex
- Along the chosen axis, choose the grouping that gives the minimum overlap-value, then area-value

Forced Reinsert

- Forced Reinsert:
- defer splits, by forced-reinsert, i.e.: instead of splitting, temporarily delete some entries, shrink overflowing MBR, and re-insert those entries

- Which ones to re-insert?
- How many? A: 30%

Forced Reinsert

- OverflowTreatment( parameter level)
- If level is not root level and this is first call to OverflowTreatment for this level
- Then, invoke Reinsert
- Else, invoke Split

- If level is not root level and this is first call to OverflowTreatment for this level
- Reinsert
- Sort entries on their distance from center
- Remove first p entries, adjust BR
- Invoke insert to reinsert the entries

Forced Reinsert

- Forced reinsert changes entries between neighboring nodes and decreases the overlap
- Storage utilization is improved
- Due to restructuring, less splits occur
- Since outer rectangles are re-inserted, more quadratic directory rectangles.

R* Trees – Why Robust?

- For every query file and every data file less disk accessed are required than any other variants.
- Highly robust against ugly data distributions

Performance

- Likely significant improvement over other R tree variants. In spite of forced reinsertion, average insertion cost is not increased but essentially decreased regarding the R-tree variants.
- Efficiently supports point and spatial data at the same time

References:

- Norbert Beckmann, Hans-Peter Kriegel, Ralf Schneider, Bernhard Seeger: The R*-Tree: An Efficient and Robust Access Method for Points and Rectangles
- www.corelab.ntua.gr/courses/ds.grad/lect2NTUA07.ppt

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