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AP Environmental Science Mr. Grant Lesson 67. Our Urbanizing World & Sprawl. Objectives:. Define the term sprawl . Describe the scale of urbanization Assess urban and suburban sprawl Outline city and regional planning and land use strategies. Evaluate transportation options .

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AP Environmental Science Mr. Grant Lesson 67

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Ap environmental science mr grant lesson 67

  • AP Environmental Science

  • Mr. Grant

  • Lesson 67

Our Urbanizing World

&

Sprawl


Objectives

Objectives:

  • Define the term sprawl.

  • Describe the scale of urbanization

  • Assess urban and suburban sprawl

  • Outline city and regional planning and land use strategies.

  • Evaluate transportation options.


Define the term sprawl

Define the term sprawl.

  • Sprawl: The unrestrained spread of urban or suburban development outward from a city center and across the landscape. Sometimes specified as growth in which the area of development outpaces population growth.


Describe the scale of urbanization

Describe the scale of urbanization.

  • The world’s population is becoming predominantly urban.

  • The shift from rural to urban living is driven largely by industrialization and is proceeding fastest now in the developing world.

  • Nearly all-future population growth will be in cities of the developing world.

  • Environmental factors influence the location and growth of cities.

  • The geography of urban areas is changing as cities decentralize and suburbs grow and expand.


Our urbanizing world

Our urbanizing world

  • Urbanization = the movement of people from rural to urban (cities and suburbs) areas

    • Society’s greatest change since it became sedentary

  • People need a safe, clean, urban environment

    • Urban systems must be sustainable

  • Urban populations are growing rapidly

    • The growing human population

    • More people are moving to urban areas


Industrialization causes urbanization

Industrialization causes urbanization

  • Urbanization began for two reasons:

    -Farms began producing access food.

    - Industrial revolution spawned technology

    -Creating jobs and opportunities in cities

    -Increasing production efficiencies

    You need to know this


U rbanization

Urbanization

  • Developed nations have slowing urbanization.

    Developing nations are urbanizing rapidly

    • Searching for jobs, wars, ecological damage

      Write in your notes one megacity in a developing nation


What factors influence the location of cities

What Factors influence the location of cities?


Things like

Things Like…

  • Climate,

  • Ttopography

  • Waterways

    -Determine whether a small settlement becomes a large city

  • Many well-located cities are linchpins in trading networks.

    How?


How urbanization is changing

How urbanization is changing

Today, cities thrive in resource-poor areas

  • Cheap fossil fuels and powerful technologies (Dallas)

  • Water is brought in from distant areas (e.g., Las Vegas)

  • Phoenix grew 91% between 1990 and 2008

  • What’s a major technology that makes life in Phoenix bearable in the summer?


People moved to suburbs and cities suffered

People moved to suburbs and cities suffered

  • Why would people move to suburbs?

  • Suburbs had more space

    • Economic opportunities

    • Cheaper real estate

    • Less crime

    • Better schools

  • Inner cities declined


Because

Because…

Suburbs offer

- Economic opportunities

  • Cheaper real estate

  • Less crime

  • Better schools

    When people moved to suburbs

  • Inner cities declined


  • What enabled people to move to suburbs

    What enabled people to move to suburbs?

    • Automobiles and an expanding road network

    • Abundant, cheap oil

      - Jet travel, television, cell phones, the Internet allow easier communication from any area


    So what is sprawl

    So what is sprawl?

    • Sprawl = the spread of low-density urban or suburban development outward from an urban center

    • Sprawl covers large areas of land with low-density development.

    • What are the impacts of Sprawl?

    • Sprawl has negative impacts involving transportation, pollution, health, land use, habitat loss, and economics.


    Effects of sprawl

    Effects of Sprawl

    Transportation- More people need to drive to get somewhere when they live in suburbs.

    Pollution- Cars and driving create emissions. Can contribute to urban smog, acid rain, ozone destruction.

    Health- Sprawl promotes people being sedentary because you have to drive so much.


    Effects of sprawl continued

    Effects of Sprawl Continued…

    • Land Use- Low-density development uses more land.

      • -Houses and roads replace 1 million ha (2.5 million acres) of U.S. land each year – 6,700 acres/day!

    • Economics- Sprawl drains money from urban downtown centers by demanding resources like:

      -Road systems, sewer systems, police and fire services, telephone line.


    Ap environmental science mr grant lesson 67

    Exit Ticket!

    Is there Sprawl in the area you live?

    Does it bother you or not?

    Have this answer in your notes.

    I will check at the end of class


    People in suburbs take up lots of space

    People in suburbs take up lots of space


    Several types of development lead to sprawl

    Several types of development lead to sprawl


    So how do people deal with the effects of sprawl

    So how do people deal with the effects of sprawl?

    • Through city and regional planning

    • With zoning

    • With urban growth boundaries

    • With smart growth


    What is city planning

    What is City Planning?

    City planning = designing cities to maximize their efficiency, functionality, and beauty

    City planners help control development

    Address transportation needs

    Create public parks

    Improve neighborhood living conditions

    Streamline traffic


    Washington d c was a planned city

    Washington, D.C. was a planned city

    Pierre Charles L’Enfant’s 1791 plan called for splendid diagonal avenues, monuments, a spacious, stately feeling


    What is regional planning

    What is regional planning?

    Regional planning = deals with same issues as city planning, but with

    -Has broader geographic scales

    - Must coordinate with multiple municipal governments

    Regional planning brings together:

    Urban and rural residents

    Homeowners, farmers, developers, and governments coordinate on what future land uses will be


    What is zoning

    What is Zoning?

    Remember all these terms are way people deal with SPRAWL!!

    Zoning = organizes areas for different types of development and land use

    Zoning involves government restriction on the use of private land

    Do you think people have

    issues with this?


    Ap environmental science mr grant lesson 67

    Issues with Zoning

    • Proponents say government can set limits for the good of the community

    • Opponents say this violates individual freedoms because the government is saying what they can and cannot do with there private land

    • -This is considered a regulatory taking

    • Do you think the government has the right to decide what is “good” for it’s citizens?


    Urban growth boundaries ugbs

    Urban growth boundaries (UGBs)

    Limit sprawl: keeps growth in existing urbanized areas

    Revitalize downtowns

    Protect farms, forests, and industries

    Disadvantages:

    Increase housing prices within their boundaries

    - Increase the density of new housing inside the UGB


    Many cities have urban growth boundaries

    Many cities have urban growth boundaries

    • Other states, regions, and cities have adopted UGBs

      • Boulder, Colorado; many California areas

      • Trying to concentrate development, prevent sprawl, and preserve farmland and habitat

    Oregon’s long-term goal was to prevent growth of a megalopolis stretching from Eugene to Seattle


    Ap environmental science mr grant lesson 67

    • Oregon’s long-term goal was to prevent growth of a megalopolis stretching from Eugene to Seattle


    Smart growth tries to counter sprawl

    Smart growth tries to counter sprawl

    Smart growth = urban growth boundaries and other land use policies to control sprawl

    Proponents of smart growth promote:

    Healthy neighborhoods and communities

    Jobs and economic development

    Transportation options

    Environmental quality

    Building “up, not out”

    Focusing development in existing areas

    Favoring multistory shop-houses and high-rises


    New urbanism is now in vogue

    New urbanism is now in vogue

    New urbanism = neighborhoods are designed on a walkable scale

    Homes, businesses, and schools are close together

    Functional neighborhoods in which most of a family’s needs can be met without using a car

    New urbanist developments have green spaces, mixed architecture, creative street layouts


    Ap environmental science mr grant lesson 67

    Vocab to know:

    -light pollution

    -Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design

    -new urbanism

    -transit-oriented development

    -urban ecology

    -urban growth boundary (UBG)

    -regional planning

    -urban heat island effect

    Please create cards for each one of these words.


    Evaluate transportation options

    Evaluate transportation options.

    • Mass transit systems can enhance the efficiency and sustainability of urban areas.

    • The United States lags behind other nations in mass transit, but as population and demand increase, new efforts are being made.


    Transit oriented development

    Transit-oriented development

    • Transit-oriented development = compact communities in the new urbanist style

      • Are arrayed around stops on a major rail transit line

      • People can travel by train and foot

    • Zoning rules must cooperate with new urbanism

      • Denser development must be allowed so sprawl is prevented


    Mass transportation

    Mass transportation

    Traffic jams cause air pollution, stress, and lost time

    Cost the U.S. economy $74 billion/year

    Key in improving quality of urban life: mass transportation

    Buses, trains, subways

    Light rail = smaller systems powered by electricity

    Cheaper, more energy efficient, and cleaner

    Traffic congestion is eased


    Train and bus systems

    The most-used U.S. train systems are in large cities

    Carry 25% of each city’s daily commuters

    New York’s subways, the T in Boston

    Portland’s buses carry 66 million/year

    Each bus keeps 250 cars off the road each day

    Train and bus systems


    U s mass transit lags behind other nations

    U.S. mass transit lags behind other nations

    • Most nations have extensive, accessible bus systems

      • The U.S. lags behind in mass transit systems

    • Other nations have high-speed bullet trains

      • The U.S. starves its only national passenger trains (Amtrak) of funding

    • Why is U.S. mass transit behind?

      • Low population density and cheap fuel support roads and cars

      • In 2009, Congress set aside $8 billion for high-speed rail


    Establishing mass transport is not easy

    Establishing mass transport is not easy

    • It is expensive to replace existing roads

    • Strong, visionary political leadership is needed

      • Growth is directed, instead of being overwhelming

    • Governments can encourage mass transit

      • Raise fuel taxes

      • Tax inefficient modes of transport

      • Reward carpoolers

      • Encourage bicycle use and bus ridership

      • Charge trucks for road damage

      • Stimulate investment in renewed urban centers


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