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lcome to the world of urnalism, where porters have been gging dirt, raking muck, king headlines and adlines for centuries w. It’s a history full of bloid trash, of slimy nsationalists, of runkards, deadbeats and mmers” (as a Harvard iversity president once scribed reporters).

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Inside Reporting Tim Harrower

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Inside reporting tim harrower l.jpg

lcome to the world of urnalism, where porters have been gging dirt, raking muck, king headlines and adlines for centuries w. It’s a history full of bloid trash, of slimy nsationalists, of runkards, deadbeats and mmers” (as a Harvard iversity president once scribed reporters).

But it’s a history full of roes, too: men and men risking their lives tell stories of war and agedy, risking prisonment to defend ee speech. And as you n see here, reports have come beloved characters p culture, too, turning up movies, comics and TV ows as if guided by an cult hand.

Every culture seeks effective ways to spread new information and gossip. In ancient times, news was written on clay tablets. In Caesar’s age, Romans read newsletters compiled by correspondents and handwritten by slaves. Wandering minstrels spread news (and the plague) in the Middle Ages. Them came ink on paper. Voices on airwaves. Newsreels, Web sites, And 24-hour cable news networks.

Thus when scholars analyze the rich history of journalism, some view it in terms of technological progress—for example, the dramatic impact of bigger, faster printing presses.

Others see journalism as a specialized form literary expression, one that’s

constantly evolving, reflecting and shaping its culture.

Others see it as an inspiring quest for free speech, an endless power struggle between Authority (trying to control information) and the People (trying to learn the truth). Which brings to mind the words of A.J. Liefling: “Freedom of the press is guaranteed only to htose who own one.”

In the pages ahead, we’ll take a quick tour of 600 years of journalism history, from hieroglyphics to hypertext: the media, the message and the politics.

Technical advances and brilliant ideas forged a new style of journalism. It was a century of change, and newspapers changed

dramatically. The typi newspaper of 1800 wa undisciplined mishma legislative proceedinglong-winded essays a secondhand gossip. B1900, a new breed of tor had emerged. Jourhad become big busin Reporting was becom disciplined craft. And newspapers were becmore entertaining and essential than ever, wmost of the features w expect today: Snappy headlines, Ads, Comic Sports pages. And an “inverted pyramid” sty writing that made stori tighter and newsier.

Radio and television brought an end to newspapers’ media monopoly. Why? Well yourself: Which did yo

Inside ReportingTim Harrower

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Broadcast journalism


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Broadcast journalism

Broadcast news

Writing for broadcast

Radio news reporting

Television news reporting


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Broadcast news

TV, radio journalism neither better nor worse than print journalism

  • Print journalism offers depth, context and information.

  • Broadcast journalism –emotional appeal, realism, and immediacy.

    • Can become “info-tainment.”


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Broadcast news

All the news that fits – and that’s really not much

  • 70% of stories last less than one minute.

  • 75% of stories are local.

  • Crime stories appear most often.

  • Most stories of controversies give one point of view.


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Writing for broadcast

Stories require different styles

  • Use friendlier, conversational tone.

  • Keep it short. Simple. And easy to follow.

  • Don’t use inverted-pyramid form.

  • Use present tense as often as possible.

  • Contractions are acceptable.

  • Treat attributions and quotes differently.


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Writing for broadcast

In different media…

  • Add phonetic pronunciation.

  • Use punctuation to help – not hinder –delivery.

  • Avoid abbreviations and symbols.

  • Round off numbers and spell them out.


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Radio news reporting

Radio may be most challenging

  • Write to your bites.

  • Read stories aloud.

  • Record natural sound.

  • Paint word pictures.

  • Best radio reporting

    • Conversational, yet concise.

    • Friendly,yet authoritative.

    • Snappy,yet eloquent.


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Radio news reporting

It takes practice to sound like a pro

  • Record yourself.

  • Adjust your delivery.

  • Most common problems can be avoided.

  • Study the pros.

  • Practice.


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Radio news reporting

Common radio news terms & jargon

  • Anchor – person hosting newscast.

  • Actuality – sound bite.

  • Natural sound – ambient sound.

  • Script – written version of story.

  • Voicer – news story that does not use actualities.

  • Lead-in– words that introduce an element in the story.

  • Live – not prerecorded.


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Radio news reporting

Common radio news terms & jargon

  • Wrap – story begins and ends with reporter.

  • Intro – the lead to a reporter’s wrap.

  • In-cue – first words of a cut or wrap.

  • Out-cue –final words of a cut or wrap.

  • Tag– closing line; also called sign-off, sig-out, lockout, standard outcue.

  • Talent– reporters, anchors, disc jockeys.

  • Tease– brief headline or promo for coming story.


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Television news reporting

TV journalism’s unique approach

  • Collaborate.

  • Write to the video.

  • Don’t overload with facts.

  • Talk into camera and depend on video.

  • Engage viewers’ emotions.

  • Look professional.


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Television news reporting

  • TV journalism’s unique approach

    • Interviewing tips

  • Find location.

  • Maintain eye contact.

  • Rephrase and re-ask questions.

  • Watch for good sound bites.

  • Avoid “stepping on” sound bites.

  • Shoot cutaways.


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Television news reporting

Common TV news terms & jargon

  • B-roll – video images shot at news scene (also called cover).

  • Stand-up – shot of reporter at news scene.

  • Package – story prepared by reporter.

  • Audio – sound heard on TV.

  • Video – images seen on TV.

  • Sound bite – recorded comment.

  • Track – audio recording of reporter.


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Television news reporting

Common TV news terms & jargon

  • Anchor intro –introduction to piece read by anchor (also called lead-in).

  • Bridge – stand-up that moves story from one angle to another.

  • Toss – what’s said as one reporter hands off to another.

  • On cam – on-camera.

  • VO – voice-over.

  • SOT – sound on tape.


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Television news reporting

Common TV news terms & jargon

  • Rundown – order stories will appear.

  • Prompter – device that projects script for anchor to read.

  • Talking head – person being interviewed.


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