The integumentary system
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The Integumentary System. Ch. 5. Objectives. Identify various parts of the integument Know the functions of the integumentary system Know the structural composition of hair and nails Understand how skin disorders like cancer and burns are classified and what occurs during these disorders.

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The Integumentary System

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The integumentary system

The Integumentary System

Ch. 5


Objectives

Objectives

  • Identify various parts of the integument

  • Know the functions of the integumentary system

  • Know the structural composition of hair and nails

  • Understand how skin disorders like cancer and burns are classified and what occurs during these disorders


The integumentary system1

The Integumentary System

  • Includes the skin (integument) and the accessory organs found within the skin


Skin integumentary system

Skin: Integumentary System

  • Functions: prevent dehydration, protect from injury, serve as defense against microorganisms, regulate body temperature, make vitamin D, provide sensation, nonverbal communication

  • Structure:

    • Epidermis: outer layer, stratified squamous epithelial cells, no blood vessels, specialized keratinocytes and melanocytes

    • Dermis: deeper layer, support tissues, fibers


Skin integumentary system1

Skin: Integumentary System


Epidermis

Epidermis

  • Keratinized stratified squamous epithelium

  • Cell types

    • Regenerative stem cells

    • Keratinocytes

    • Melanocytes

    • Tactile cells

    • Dendritic cells


Layers of the epidermis

Layers of the Epidermis

  • From deep out

    • Stratum basale

    • Stratum spinosum

    • Stratum granulosum

      • Keratohyaline granules

        • filaggrin

      • Lamellated granules

    • Stratum lucidum

      • Thick skin only

    • Stratum corneum

pgbeautygroomingscience.com


Skin histology

Skin Histology

nku.edu


Skin color

Skin Color

  • Melanin

    • The more produced, the darker the color

  • Hemoglobin

    • Reddish – pink skin tones

  • Carotene

    • Yellow hue to skin

    • Concentrates in stratum corneum


Dermis

Dermis

  • Connective tissue layer deep to the epidermis

    • Attached to the epidermis via dermal papillae

      • Interlocking arrangement with epidermal ridges

  • Two layers

    • Papillary

      • Areolar

    • Reticular

      • Dense irregular


Accessory structures of dermis

Accessory Structures of Dermis

  • Hair: shaft, follicle

  • Smooth muscle: attached to hair follicle, raises hair to upright position

  • Oil glands/sebaceous glands: secretion moistens and softens skin


Accessory structures of dermis cont

Accessory Structures of Dermis (cont.)

  • Sweat glands: secrete sweat, help in temperature regulation

    • Apocrine and merocrine

  • Blood vessels: supply nutrients, remove waste, assist in temperature regulation

  • Sensory nerve endings: for heat, cold, touch, deep pressure, vibration


Dermis1

Dermis

healthguide.howstuffworks.com


Hypodermis

Hypodermis

  • Binds skin to underlying tissue

  • Functions as padding and insulation

    • Subcutaneous fat

  • Readily absorbs drugs given by hypodermic injection

    • Highly vascular


The integumentary system

Hair

  • Pili (sing. Pilus) are composed of hard, dead keratinized cells

  • Grow from a follicle that is typically found in the dermis

  • Hair divided into three zones

    • Bulb which lies in the follicle

    • Root

    • Shaft

keratin.com


Nails

Nails

  • Scale-like modifications of the epidermis (startum corneum)

  • Dead cells full of parallel hard keratin

emedicinehealth.com


Skin disorders

Skin Disorders

  • Skin Cancer

    • One of the most prevalent cancers

    • UV radiation damages cells

    • Three types

      • Basal cell carcinoma

        • Most common, stratum basale

      • Squamous cell carcinoma

        • Stratum spinosum

      • Malignant melanoma

        • Most deadly, melanocytes

metrohealth.org


Burns

Burns

  • Classified based on depth of tissue involvement

    • First degree

      • Epidermis

        • Red, slight swelling

    • Second degree

      • Epidermis and into part of the dermis

        • Red to white, more painful

        • Regeneration of epidermis possible

    • Third degree

      • Full-thickness, completely through dermis and beyond

        • Tan to brown, danger of fluid loss and infection

        • Generally require skin grafts to replace dermis and epidermis

burn-recovery.org


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