Overview of Salvadoran History II

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Overview. Economic performanceMilitary regimePRUD (Partido Revolucionario de Unificaci?n Democr?tica)PCN (Partido de Conciliaci?n Nacional)Political eventsEconomic strategiesAlliance for ProgressIndustrialization, CACMExport agricultureShowcase projectsOrganizing for warRadical organizationsRepressive organizationsPolarizationRoad to civil war.

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Overview of Salvadoran History II

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1. The military regime and its demise Overview of Salvadoran History II

2. Overview Economic performance Military regime PRUD (Partido Revolucionario de Unificación Democrática) PCN (Partido de Conciliación Nacional) Political events Economic strategies Alliance for Progress Industrialization, CACM Export agriculture Showcase projects Organizing for war Radical organizations Repressive organizations Polarization Road to civil war 2

3. Economic performance 3

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5. Military Regime, PRUD and PCN Partido Revolucionario de Unificación Democrática presidents Colonel Oscar Osorio 1950-56 Liutenant colonel José María Lemus 1956-1960 Junta de gobierno 1960-61 Directorio cívico militar 1961 Partido de Conciliación Nacional presidents Colonel Julio Rivera 1961-1967 Colonel Fidel Sánchez Hernández 1967-1972 Colonel Arturo Armando Molina 1972-1977 General Carlos Humberto Romero 1977-1979

6. Military regime: PRUD governments  PRUD governments set the stage for the new government role in the economy while coffee prices were high Economic 1950 Commerce Code 1951-53 tax codes with incentives for business 1953 Ley de Fomento a la Industria de Transformacion 1955 Instituto Salvadoreño de Fomento a la Producción Promotion of Central American Common Market Infrastructure => roads, hydroelectric dam  Social Instituto Regulador de Abastecimientos (staple grains regulator) Instituto de Vivienda Urbana (government housing) Instituto de Colonización Rural (land redistribution) Instituto Salvadoreño de Seguro Social (medical services, retirement)  6

7. Military regime: PCN governments  After 1960 modernization was framed to make El Salvador an Alliance for Progress showcase Rivera explicitly molded himself into a model Alliance for Progress president. Top-down modernizing vision and unwavering anticommunism went together 7

8.  Some key political events 1964 legislation allowing proportional representation Part of liberalizing moment including labor organization Competitive legislative elections, Christian Democrats rise Napoleon Duarte became major of San Salvador 1969 war with Honduras Hurt Central American Common Market Led to splits in communist party and more radical groups 1972 presidential elections Blatant fraud weakened legitimacy of regime Duarte sent into exile 1977 presidential elections  In the midst of political violence Further eroded PCN legitimacy 8

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10. Economic strategies  Economic strategies, domesticaly originated but also with strong Alliance for Progress support in the 60s and early 70s Industrialization, Central American Common Market Expansion of export agriculture Central planning, showcase projects Education reform with TV Hydroelectric dam Land reform 10

11. Economic strategies: Alliance for Progress suport  El Salvador was not among the top recipients of US aid. First five years $80 million in economic assistance, $5 million in military aid In per capita terms 1962-1976 ranked 12th in loans and grants ranked 13th in military aid Main support loans for commercial agriculture, industry, roads, electricity, and telephone service Also schools, housing, health centers, textbooks, food distribution Star project: Educational Television 11

12. Economic strategies, industrialization Central American Common Market Effort to increase size of the market for industrialization The main treaty was signed in 1960  Lower trade barriers between countries Similar barriers with rest of the world Each country specialized in a few industries Industrial growth brought growth of working class  After El Salvador Honduras war Honduras withdrew Most trade handled on the basis of bilateral treaties after 1969 12

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14.  Economic strategies, export agriculture Downside of cotton production Soil destruction and erosion Insecticides polluted rivers, poisoned workers Food production displaced High rents made land unavailable for small tenants and sharecroppers 14

15. Economic strategies, showcase projects   Big showcase projects became an arena for political struggle Education reform with television Cerrón Grande dam Land reform efforts Education reform Main project of Sánchez Hernández administration (1967-72) Implementation of the reform alienated teachers The new technology was expensive and threatened to displace teachers Massive teacher’s strikes in 1968 and 1971 Strikes a turning point in urban mobilization Government repression and intransigence radicalized the teacher’s union and high school students 15

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17. Economic strategies, showcase projects Cerrón Grande Dam One of the main initiatives of the Molina administration (1972-1977) Dam was to flood roughly 59,000 hectares of highly productive land in the eastern lowlands Part of the money to compensate landowners for their expropriated land was provided by US AID Fierce landowner opposition Included death squad attacks against government functionaries Displacement of peasants created great resentment Repression of oposition to the project worsened things The area became a recruitment target for radical activists Liberation Theology base communities had been active in the area 17

18.  Economic strategies, projects Land reform, two failed efforts (0.14% owned 21.5% of land, 70.5 owned 6.2 %) 1970 Primer Congreso de Reforma Agraria Part of the aftermath of Honduras War Sabotaged by business representatives Father Alas, an advocate of peasants, was kidnapped 1974 Molina´s Agrarian Transformation The president pledged the honor of the army to see the reform through Sold it as ¨life insurance¨ for the system A fully developed plan promoted by the President was reversed as a result of a relentless campaign paid by big landowners Both experiments radicalized the right and the left 18

19. Organizing for war Polarization in El Salvador after 1969 war   “Revolutionary movements [in El Salvador ] became powerful political forces because attempts during the 1960s and 1970s to redress a variety of social and political grievances through elections and peaceful organizing were greeted by the authoritarian regimes in those countries with blatant fraud and violent repression” Jeff Goodwin 19

20.  Organizing for war: radical organizations Popular Liberation Forces (FPL) Communist leave the party to form the Fuerzas Populares de Liberacion FPL, in 1970, allied in 1975 with Bloque Popular Revolucionario.  People’s Revolutionary Army (ERP) and Armed Forces of National Resistance (FARN) After 1972 elections radical Christian Democrats started El Grupo which became the Ejército Revolucionario del Pueblo ERP. Specialized in kidnapping and killing poets. FARN created after 75 killing of Dalton Peasant Unions  1964 Christian Peasants Federation (FECCAS), Peasant Workers Union Energized after dam displaced about 15000 peasants in 1974 Ligas Populares 28 de febrero. Formed after February 28:, 1977 demonstration to protest the fraudulent election was surrounded by the army and 200 killed 20

21.  Organizing for war: repressive aparatus Two organizations created around 1965 ORDEN Civilian leaders instructed by soldiers Established local chapters in every hamlet Goal: teach anti communism, gather information about suspect communists Information passed to the capital  Agencia Nacional de Servicios Especiales de El Salvador Intelligence agency Coordinate military and paramiliatry activities, including death squads Acted on the information provided by ORDEN The system brought fear and death to every hamlet 21

22.  Polarization of the right Kidnappings: 1970 Ernesto Regalado Dueñas 1974 President’s Chief of Staff 1977 Roberto Poma, Mauricio Borgonovo, Osmín Aguirre 52 kidnappings, $65 million Ransom money helped to finance the FSLN in Nicaragua Legacy: Frightened and polarized right 22

23.  Acceleration of polarization 1977 Presidential elections Conservative groups that opposed land reform dominated the elections Elections was clearly fixed, official candidate won 3 to 1   “Lame duck period” From February to July 1977 the government tried to “clean house” before the inauguration Dramatic increase in human rights violations 23

24.  Acceleration of polarization Repression against the Catholic Church March 1977 Rev. Rutilio Grande, S.J. murdered May 1977 Father Alfonso Navarro Jan. to May 1977 5 priests tortured 8 expelled 6 denied reentry 1977-1980 16 religious leaders killed Right wing bumper sticker: “Be a patriot kill a priest” Preaching Liberation Theology had made them a target 24

25.  Road to civil war 1977 Peasant land invasions and demand higher minimum wage, Government responds with law suspending freedoms  1978 Federation of Christian Peasants has open battles with ORDEN in countryside Guerrilla raids once a week 40 bombs in San Salvador  1979 January:, Dutch, British and Japanese business people kidnapped in separate incidents February, bomb explosions March ,strikes of energy workers May, Costa Rican, French and Venezuelan embassies occupied by rebel groups  June, 19 countries withdraw ambassadors July, Sandinista victory August, United States demands early elections 25

26.  Road to civil war October 15, 1979 coup Young officers and reformist politicians, rapid change to avoid civil war Brilliant cabinet Problems: Lacked popular base: did not stop the left Did not control army: did not stop repression Dec. 1979, most civilians in junta resign, Christian Democrats stepped in A second junta consolidated by March, 1980 Project: reform with repression Banks nationalized Land reform Repression continued out of control March 23 Archbishop Romero was killed saying mass 26

27. Civil war Ronald Reagan elected president in November 1980, lame duck period begins in U.S. Another effort to “clean house”, repression increases December 4, American nuns murdered January 4, 2 Americans land reform advisers murdered January 10, FINAL OFFENSIVE started by the guerrillas War until January 1992 27

28. THE END hlindo@aol.com 28

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