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Preparing all students to be competitive and productive citizens in a global economy. Lenoir County Public Schools. Reaping the Harvest of Change… Through High Quality Professional Development. Presented by: Tezella G. Cline, Professional Development Specialist.

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Lenoir county public schools

Preparing all students to be competitive and productive citizens in a global economy

Lenoir County Public Schools

Reaping the Harvest of Change…

Through

High Quality

Professional Development

Presented by: Tezella G. Cline,

Professional Development Specialist


Introduction to habits of mind for kinston high school

Introduction to Habits of Mind citizens in a global economyfor Kinston High School

Lenoir County Public Schools

Reaping the Harvest of Change

2011


Outcomes
Outcomes citizens in a global economy

  • To promote high academic achievement for all students

  • To foster a supportive, thoughtful environment where students think, speak, and behave intelligently

  • To use Habits of Mind to plan activities that promote critical thinking in all content areas


Objectives
Objectives citizens in a global economy

Today you will…

  • Actively engage in group, partner, and individual activities to analyzeThe Habits of Mind

  • Read tosummarizeThe Habits of Mind

  • Illustrate, explain, and describe your group’s thinking related to one assigned Habit

  • Reflect on the value of using The Habits of Mind to cultivate thinking and supportyour response

  • Brainstorm ways to apply The Habits of Mind in your classroom and school and predict possible outcomes


Ground rules
Ground citizens in a global economy Rules

Cultivating Excellence…

1. Have fun!

2. Learn about thinking and have fun!

3. Interact and think!

4. Think about your thinking.

5. Share your thoughts about your thinking!

6. Relax, enjoy,

and have fun thinking!

What rules are important to you

during our time together?

What type of working atmosphere

is best for you?

What About…

Snacks?

Restroom?

Breaks?

Cell phones?

Start times/ ending time?

Other?


My notes

Date: _______________ citizens in a global economy

Name: _____________

My Notes – ______________

My ideas…

Notes…

My questions…


Discovering exploring habits of mind
Discovering citizens in a global economy& ExploringHabits of Mind

Presented by:

Arthur L. Costa, ED. D.

&

Bena Kallick, PH. D.


Pre assessment a sticky assignment
Pre-Assessment citizens in a global economy“A Sticky Assignment”

  • Get a sticky note

  • Prepare to rate your knowledge of the topic

  • Write what you know about the topic on the front

    • If 0, write a “?”

    • If 1, tell where or how you heard about this topic

    • If 2, List what you know (general knowledge)

    • If 3, 4, or 5, write specific information to record what you know about the topic

    • Write your name on the back of your sticky note

      *Walk to the wall area and place your sticky note on the graph in the appropriate location… (get a ticket)

(No knowledge of this at all.)

(I have heard of)


Graph your knowledge habits of mind

Name:_________________ citizens in a global economy

Graph your knowledge…Habits of Mind

10

9 – 10

Can explain, give examples & apply

9

7 – 8

Can name & explain

8

7

5 – 6

Can name &

describe

6

5

4

3 – 4

Can name

3

2

1 – 2

Heard of

HOM

1

0

Before Training

March

June

After Training

0 – no

knowledge

October 24

February 24, 2011


Graph your knowledge habits of mind1

Name:_________________ citizens in a global economy

Graph your knowledge…Habits of Mind

10

9

Use a marker to create a bar graph to track your progress.

8

7

6

5

Mark your current level of knowledge.

4

3

Record notes to document and reflect on what you have learned.

2

1

0

After Training

March

June

Before Training

January 5, 2011

Partner’s Name: _________________


Graph your knowledge habits of mind2

Name:_________________ citizens in a global economy

Graph your knowledge…Habits of Mind

10

9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

0

After Training

March

June

Before Training

February 24, 2011

Partner’s Name: _________________


Habits of mind
Habits of Mind citizens in a global economy

  • Ways of thinking

  • Help you know what to do when you don’t know the answer

  • Allow you to talk about thinking

  • Support you as you learn

  • Support and sustain student engagement


Warm up
Warm up! citizens in a global economy

  • Get Ready to think!

  • Get Ready to think!

  • Get Ready to think!

  • Get Ready to think!

  • Get Ready to think!

Sing to tune of Adams Family

Clap or snap fingers


So what were you thinking
So, what were you thinking? citizens in a global economy

  • During the activity

    • Thinking

    • Feeling

    • Doing

    • Saying to yourself

      - How successful were you with the activity? Why?


What are habits of mind
What Are Habits of Mind? citizens in a global economy

  • Read from your handout and highlight the answers:

    • What is a Habits of Mind?

    • How many Habits are there?

    • Name each of the Habits of Mind?


I don t know
I don’t know… citizens in a global economy


The condition of not knowing
The Condition of Not Knowing: citizens in a global economy

“To admit to not knowing is to risk vulnerability; to pretend to know is to risk error.”

Corcocan, 1981

Permission granted by: Leslie Huling, Austin Educational Associates, Austin Texas.


Dr costa asked this question
Dr. Costa asked this question: citizens in a global economy

List the characteristics and behaviors that you would like to see in your students as they learn each day?

What traits would you like to see in your students here at Southwood Elementary School?

Share with a partner and then we’ll hear from your table.


How we would like all students to be or function

Confident citizens in a global economy

Take risks

Think before acting

Challenge assumptions

Questioning

Reflective

Proactive

Independent leaders, thinkers, workers

Taking charge (having a plan of action, self directed)

Persisting (stick to it)

Venture forth with ideas

Make connections (interacting and learning with other leaders

Connecting - feel-think-act.

Complex thinkers

Creative

Inquisitive

Emotional strength (control)

How We Would Like All Students To Be Or Function:


Cultivating a thought full learning community with habits of mind

Cultivating citizens in a global economy A THOUGHT-FULL LEARNING COMMUNITYWITH HABITS OF MIND


Habits of mind1

Persisting citizens in a global economy

Habits of Mind

Thinking Flexibly

Thinking

Interdependently

Responding with

Wonderment & Awe

Metacognition

Accuracy & Precision

Managing Impulsivity

Questioning

Use all Senses

Finding Humor

Listening w/ understanding & empathy


Handout packet
Handout /Packet citizens in a global economy

  • Read pages 1 – 2

    • How many Habits are there?

    • Think of words or phrases that could explain each Habit.

    • Be aware of these habits as you prepare to engage in our next activity

    • At the end of the activity, you will be asked to reflect on your thinking to connect to these Habits


Metacognitive problem
METACOGNITIVE PROBLEM: citizens in a global economy

COMBINE THE FOLLOWING FOUR SENTENCES:

  • The horse jumped over the fence.

  • The horse was gray.

  • The jump was done gracefully.

  • The fence was low and made of brick.


Stay focused on the thinking process

STAY FOCUSED ON THE THINKING PROCESS: citizens in a global economy

“Tell us what strategies you

used to solve the problem.”

How?

What were you thinking?


Sustaining and engaging metacognition

Sustaining and Engaging Metacognition citizens in a global economy

1. Check for Accuracy

2. Clarify

3. Provide data not answers

4. Resist making judgments

5. Stay focused on thinking

6. Encourage Persistence


T hink a loud p roblem s olving
T citizens in a global economyHINK ALOUDPROBLEM SOLVING

Pose challenging problems then:

  • Invite students to describe their plans

    and strategies for solving the problem.

  • Share their thinking as they are

    implementing their plan.

  • Reflect on/evaluate the

    effectiveness of their strategy.


So remember mistakes are a natural part of learning
So Remember… citizens in a global economyMistakes are a natural part of learning…

"Admitting errors clears the score and proves you wiser than before."Arthur Guiterman


Why use these
Why use these? citizens in a global economy

Habits of Mind

Support all subject areas

Cultivate thinking

Promote intelligent behaviors

Everyone benefits

Can be applied to any situation

It’s Free!


Why habits of mind
WHY HABITS OF MIND? citizens in a global economy

  • TRANSDISCIPLINARY

  • AS GOOD FOR ADULTS AS THEY ARE FOR STUDENTS

  • FOCUSED ON LONG RANGE, ENDURING, ESSENTIAL LEARNINGS


Curriculum mind shifts

FROM: citizens in a global economy

Not only knowing right answers.

TO:

Also knowing how to behave when answers are not immediately apparent.

CURRICULUM MIND SHIFTS


Remember this
Remember this… citizens in a global economy

"Motivation is what gets you started. Habit is what keeps you going."Jim Ryuh


Are you thinking
Are You Thinking? citizens in a global economy

  • Are you thinking?

  • Are you thinking?

  • Yes you are!

  • Yes you are!

  • Using persistence, Clarity, Precision

  • Habits of Mind

Sing to the tune of, “Are you Sleeping?”


Hom connections
HOM Connections citizens in a global economy

  • 21 Century Skills

    • Life & Career Skills

      • Flexibility & Adaptability

      • Initiative & Self-Direction

      • Social & Cross-cultural Skills

      • Productivity & Accountability

      • Leadership & Responsibility

  • NC Professional Teaching Standards

    • Standard IV: Teachers facilitate learning for their students

      • Element E – Teachers help students develop critical thinking and problem-solving skills

      • Element G – Teachers communicate effectively


Think about this
Think about this! citizens in a global economy


Answer
Answer citizens in a global economy


Habits of mind assignment
Habits of Mind Assignment citizens in a global economy

  • Read all general information about the Habits of Mind (overview)

  • Plan your work (with group)

  • Focus on your assigned Habit

  • Develop ideas and plan for your chart

  • Use all ideas to create your group’s chart explaining your Habit of Mind

  • Be ready to share your ideas with everyone when time is called

2 pages in white packet


Understanding the habits of mind assignment
Understanding the citizens in a global economyHabits of Mind - Assignment

  • On a Chart: Work with your group to explain your assigned Habit of Mind

  • TITLE

  • CREATE A SIMILE: “…. (name the habit of mind) IS LIKE A…..…. BECAUSE…….”

  • CREATE A LOGO OR SYMBOL FOR THE HABIT OF MIND

  • COMPOSE A BRIEF STATEMENT, SLOGAN, OR SONG THAT SUMMARIZES THE HABIT OF MIND

  • Be ready to present!

Show some examples –slide 64


Groups
Groups citizens in a global economy

  • 3 or 4 people in the group

  • One Habit is Assigned to your group

  • Prepare to present

  • Chart Paper

  • Add color

  • Be creative!

  • Really show us the Habit!


Habits of mind presentation
Habits of Mind citizens in a global economyPresentation

Take notes on the sheet provided.

Get ready for your chart presentation!


Time to share
Time to Share! citizens in a global economy

Habits of Mind

  • Explain your Habit of Mind

  • Explain your poster

    (2 to 3 minutes)

  • Listeners should record notes on the sheet provided

Tan Packet


Graph your knowledge habits of mind3

Name:_________________ citizens in a global economy

Graph your knowledge…Habits of Mind

10

9 – 10

Can explain, give examples & apply

9

7 – 8

Can name & explain

8

7

5 – 6

Can name &

describe

6

5

4

3 – 4

Can name

3

2

1 – 2

Heard of

HOM

1

0

Before Training

March

June

After Training

0 – no

knowledge

October 24

January 5, 2011


Getting started teaching the habits of mind
Getting Started… Teaching the Habits Of Mind citizens in a global economy

Reminders

Tips

Ideas

Suggestions


Habits of mind stages of development
HABITS OF MIND: STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT citizens in a global economy

The following framework is based on observations of students over the past 15 years. As students develop their Habits of Mind they seem to progress through several stages described below.

1

2

3

4

5

6

0

Internalizing

Life Long

Reflection

Assessment

& growth

Adoption

Use

Prediction & Valuing

When and Why

Recognition

How

Awareness

What are HOM


Teaching the habits of mind
Teaching the Habits of Mind citizens in a global economy

  • There is not one way to teach them

  • Use the language and model using the Habits

  • Provide an overview activity

  • Introduce them one at a time

  • Start with the Habits your students need most

  • Encourage students to use the language as they reflect on their thinking

  • Pay attention to the Stages

  • Consider your instructional content and activities

  • Remind students to pay attention to Habits as they work

  • Assess the students knowledge and use of the Habits over time


If you re thinking and you know it
If You’re citizens in a global economyThinking and You Know It!

  • If You’re Thinking and You Know It Clap your hands!

  • If You’re Thinking and You Know It Clap your hands!

  • If You’re Thinking and You Know It Then Your Work Will Surely Show It. If You’re Thinking and You Know It Clap your hands!


If you re thinking and you know it1
If You’re citizens in a global economyThinking and You Know It!

  • If You’re Thinking and You Know It Stomp Your Feet!

  • If You’re Thinking and You Know It Stomp Your Feet!

  • If You’re Thinking and You Know It Then Your Work Will Surely Show It. If You’re Thinking and You Know It Stomp Your Feet!


If you re thinking and you know it2
If You’re citizens in a global economyThinking and You Know It!

  • If You’re Thinking and You Know It Snap Your Fingers!

  • If You’re Thinking and You Know It Snap Your Fingers!

  • If You’re Thinking and You Know It Then Your Work Will Surely Show It. If You’re Thinking and You Know It Snap Your Fingers!


If you re thinking and you know it3
If You’re citizens in a global economyThinking and You Know It!

  • If You’re Thinking and You Know It Say Habits of Mind!

  • If You’re Thinking and You Know It Say Habits of Mind!

  • If You’re Thinking and You Know It Then Your Work Will Surely Show It. If You’re Thinking and You Know It Say Habits of Mind!

Habits of Mind!

Habits of Mind!

Habits of Mind!


If you re thinking and you know it4
If citizens in a global economyYou’re Thinking and You Know It!

If You’re Thinking and You Know It Say Do All Four! (Repeat 2 times)

Habits of Mind!

If you’re Thinking and You Know It Then Your Work will Surely Show It… If You’re Thinking and You Know It Say All Four!

Habits of Mind!


Follow up ideas
Follow Up Ideas… citizens in a global economy

  • Begin using the Habits yourself

  • Visit the HOM website

  • Introduce the Habits to your students

  • Send me an email reflection

  • Have students to create posters

  • Contact me to visit your classroom

  • Create a school-wide HOM wiki


Thank you
Thank You! citizens in a global economy

Tezella G. Cline


Formulate strategies to cultivate thinking in your classroom using the habits of mind
Formulate citizens in a global economy strategies to cultivate thinking in your classroom using The Habits of Mind?

Habits of Mind


Habits of mind stages of development1
HABITS OF MIND: STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT citizens in a global economy

The following framework is based on observations of students over the past 15 years. As students develop their Habits of Mind they seem to progress through several stages described below.

1

2

3

4

5

6

0

Internalizing

Life Long

Reflection

Assessment

& growth

Adoption

Use

Prediction & Valuing

When and Why

Recognition

How

Awareness

What are HOM


Cultivate thinking
Cultivate Thinking citizens in a global economy

Encourage students to evaluate issues from different points of view, then support their statements.

Use language and questions that will trigger deeper thought.


Cultivate thinking1
Cultivate Thinking citizens in a global economy

Give information to find a solution instead of telling the solution.

Ask students to tell you about their thinking and encourage them to use precise words instead of generalizations.


More ideas
More Ideas… citizens in a global economy

Sharon Green—Fourth grade teacher—The Laurence School—Los Angeles, California

I have successfully used The Habits of Mind with my fourth graders. We stress character education at Laurence, and I have found the Habits of Mind to be great character-developing tools. I have also integrated the Habits of Mind with literature. Once the students are familiar with the meanings of each Habit, I instruct them to link specific Habits of Mind to characters in the novels we are reading. They are asked to evaluate a main character's behavior throughout the novel and to choose two or three Habits of Mind they believe that character is using. They must provide passages of text that support their choice and describe in their own words exactly how that character is using a particular Habit of Mind.


Habits of Mind citizens in a global economy

Assignment: Select from the activities below. Each category of activities has a different point value. You must complete activities that add up to 40 points. Have fun!


Analyze each task and select Habits of Mind needed for success. Summarize and support your answers.

Habits

Task

Summarize and Support your Answers (why? or how?)

White handout packet


Analyze each task and select Habits of Mind needed for success. Summarize and support your answers.

Habits

Task

Summarize and Support your Answers


Foster critical thinking
Foster Critical Thinking success. Summarize and support your answers.

  • Encourage students to look at issues and situations from many points of view

  • Use language and questions that will trigger deeper thought

  • Give information to find a solution rather than telling the solution

  • Ask students to tell you about their own thinking

  • Use words such as compare, analyze, predict, classify, conclude, give evidence

  • Allow students to analyze a problem, decide what is needed, and then act

  • Let students see you trying new things, learning, growing, and thinking through problems


Encourage the use of precise words instead of generalizations

Larry Bell

Ask students to give evidence, reasons, and to provide examples to back up their statements


??????????? generalizations

"The true test of character is...how we behave when we don't know what to do."John Holt


What is excellence
What is excellence? generalizations

"The ultimate measure of a man is not where he stands in moments of comfort and convenience, but where he stands at times of challenge and controversy."Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. "Excellence is an art won by training and habituation. We do not act rightly because we have virtue or excellence, but we rather have those because we have acted rightly. We are what we repeatedly do. Excellence, then, is not an act but a habit."Aristotle


Today s work assessment
Today’s Work Assessment generalizations

Think about the Habits of Mind. Write about today’s work.

Date: _____________________________ Name: (Optional)____________________________________

  • Describe the most significant things you learned from this session.

  • Describe how this presentation helped you learn about the Habits of Mind.

  • Which activities did you value most? Why?

  • How did the activities support your learning as you processed the Habits of Mind?

  • How does the work you do in your classroom connect with this content …Habits of Mind?

  • What are your ideas for using what you have learned about Habits of Mind in your classroom?

  • Describe the type of follow-up you would benefit from.

  • Describe the effectiveness of this presenter and provide any additional comments for improvement. (Use the back if needed.)

Turn in before leaving.

TGC, 2007 - 2008


Listening with understanding and empathy
Listening with Understanding generalizationsand Empathy


Habits of mind cultivating thinking and discussing
HABITS OF MIND generalizationsCultivating, Thinking and Discussing

  • READ AND DEFINE IT IN YOUR OWN WORDS

  • GIVE EXAMPLES: WHAT DO YOU HEAR PEOPLE SAYING OR SEE THEM DOING AS THEY USE THE HABIT OF MIND

  • DESCRIBE SITUATIONS WHEN IT IS IMPORTANT TO USE THE HABIT OF MIND

  • POSE QUESTIONS INTENDED TO ELICIT THE HABIT OF MIND IN OTHERS


What is it about your students that makes you think they need to learn how to think
WHAT IS IT ABOUT YOUR STUDENTS THAT MAKES YOU THINK THEY NEED TO LEARN HOW TO THINK?

  • What do you see them doing?

  • What do you hear them saying?

  • How are they feeling?

  • How would you like them to be?


POSE QUESTIONS THAT CAUSE THE STUDENT TO CHECK FOR ACCURACY: NEED TO LEARN HOW TO THINK?“How do you know you are right?”“What other ways can you prove that you are correct?”


Rules of engagement
Rules of Engagement NEED TO LEARN HOW TO THINK?


Break
BREAK NEED TO LEARN HOW TO THINK?

Please return

at 10:45.


Warm up1
Warm up! NEED TO LEARN HOW TO THINK?

  • How much would you pay for another person’s thoughts?

  • Your thoughts are of great value!

  • The thoughts of your students are of great value also!


Ahhhhhhh
Ahhhhhhh? NEED TO LEARN HOW TO THINK?

Ahhh!


Penny for your thoughts
Penny for your thoughts… NEED TO LEARN HOW TO THINK?

Let’s get moving!


Or maybe
Or maybe… NEED TO LEARN HOW TO THINK?


0 NEED TO LEARN HOW TO THINK?

I have no knowledge of this topic at all.


1 NEED TO LEARN HOW TO THINK?

I have heard of this topic.


2 NEED TO LEARN HOW TO THINK?

I have some general knowledge about this topic.


3 NEED TO LEARN HOW TO THINK?

I have some specific knowledge of this topic.


4 NEED TO LEARN HOW TO THINK?

I understand this topic and can explain it.


5 NEED TO LEARN HOW TO THINK?

I have a deep understanding and could teach a class!


Objectives1
Objectives NEED TO LEARN HOW TO THINK?

Today you will…

  • Actively engage in group, partner, and individual activities to process and deepen your understanding of the Habits of Mind

  • Chart and present your group’s thinking related to one assigned Habit

  • Reflect on the value of using the Habits of mind to cultivate thinking

  • Brainstorm ways to apply the Habits of Mind in your classroom and school


Warm up2
Warm up! NEED TO LEARN HOW TO THINK?

  • Get Ready to think!

  • Get Ready to think!

  • Get Ready to think!

  • Get Ready to think!

  • Get Ready to think!

Sing to tune of Adams Family

Clap or snap fingers


Habits of mind attend to
Habits of mind NEED TO LEARN HOW TO THINK? attend to:

  • Value - choosing to behave intelligently

  • Inclination- deciding to use a certain behavior

  • Sensitivity- knowingwhen to use them

  • Capability- having skills & capacity to use them

  • Commitment- reflectingon improvement

  • Policy- promoting and incorporating their daily use


Warm up3
Warm up! NEED TO LEARN HOW TO THINK?

  • How much would you pay for another person’s thoughts?

  • Your thoughts are of great value!

  • The thoughts of your students are of great value also!


Ahhhhhhh1
Ahhhhhhh? NEED TO LEARN HOW TO THINK?

Ahhh!


Penny for your thoughts1
Penny for your thoughts… NEED TO LEARN HOW TO THINK?

Let’s get moving!


Habits of mind assignment1
Habits of Mind Assignment NEED TO LEARN HOW TO THINK?

  • Plan your work (with group)

  • Read all information about the Habits of Mind (overview)

  • Focus on your assigned Habit

  • Develop ideas and plan for your chart

  • Be ready to share your ideas with your group tomorrow

  • Tomorrow…use all ideas to create your group’s chart explaining your Habit of Mind


Understanding the habits of mind assignment1
Understanding the NEED TO LEARN HOW TO THINK?Habits of Mind - Assignment

  • On a Chart: Work with your group to explain your assigned Habit of Mind

  • TITLE

  • CREATE A SIMILE: “…. (name the habit of mind) IS LIKE A…..…. BECAUSE…….”

  • CREATE A LOGO OR SYMBOL FOR THE HABIT OF MIND

  • COMPOSE A BRIEF STATEMENT, SLOGAN, OR SONG THAT SUMMARIZES THE HABIT OF MIND

  • Be ready to present!


Habits of mind cultivating thinking and discussing1
HABITS OF MIND NEED TO LEARN HOW TO THINK?Cultivating, Thinking and Discussing

  • READ AND DEFINE IT IN YOUR OWN WORDS

  • GIVE EXAMPLES: WHAT DO YOU HEAR PEOPLE SAYING OR SEE THEM DOING AS THEY USE THE HABIT OF MIND

  • DESCRIBE SITUATIONS WHEN IT IS IMPORTANT TO USE THE HABIT OF MIND

  • POSE QUESTIONS INTENDED TO ELICIT THE HABIT OF MIND IN OTHERS


What is it about your students that makes you think they need to learn how to think1
WHAT IS IT ABOUT YOUR STUDENTS THAT MAKES YOU THINK THEY NEED TO LEARN HOW TO THINK?

  • What do you see them doing?

  • What do you hear them saying?

  • How are they feeling?

  • How would you like them to be?


Metacognitive problem1
METACOGNITIVE PROBLEM: NEED TO LEARN HOW TO THINK?

COMBINE THE FOLLOWING FOUR SENTENCES:

  • The horse jumped over the fence.

  • The horse was gray.

  • The jump was done gracefully.

  • The fence was low and made of brick.


METACOGNITIVE PROBLEM: NEED TO LEARN HOW TO THINK?

THERE ARE 3 SEPARATE, EQUAL-SIZE

BOXES AND INSIDE EACH BOX THERE

ARE 2 SEPARATE SMALL BOXES. INSIDE

EACH OF THE SMALL BOXES, THERE ARE

4 EVEN SMALLER BOXES. HOW MANY

BOXES ARE THERE ALL TOGETHER?


Sustaining and engaging metacognition1

Sustaining and Engaging Metacognition NEED TO LEARN HOW TO THINK?

1. Check for Accuracy

2. Clarify

3. Provide data not answers

4. Resist making judgments

5. Stay focused on thinking

6. Encourage Persistence


POSE QUESTIONS THAT CAUSE THE STUDENT TO CHECK FOR ACCURACY: NEED TO LEARN HOW TO THINK?“How do you know you are right?”“What other ways can you prove that you are correct?”


  • "The ultimate measure of a man is not where he stands in moments of comfort and convenience, but where he stands at times of challenge and controversy."Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr."Excellence is an art won by training and habituation. We do not act rightly because we have virtue or excellence, but we rather have those because we have acted rightly. We are what we repeatedly do. Excellence, then, is not an act but a habit."Aristotle


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