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Eating differently FCRN workshop on changing what we eat. Tara Garnett Food Climate Research Network www.fcrn.org.uk Oxford Martin Programme on the Future of Food 22-23 April 2014. Ag l ivelihoods 1.3bn. Climate – agriculture @15-20% world GHG . Rural economies.
Food Climate Research Network
Oxford Martin Programme on the Future of Food
22-23 April 2014
Land use change & deforestation: agriculture 35% ice free surface
Economy & society
Soil, water & air pollution; salinity
Food production & consumption
Water extraction 70% irrigation-related
Animal health & welfare
Undernutrition (850 mill) & micronutrient deficiencies (2 bn)
Ethics & society
Culture & tradition
Overnutrition (fat & energy dense) 1.4 bn
Public acceptability & trust
Food & the big picture: a convergence of concerns
Feminisation of agriculture
Food system 20-30% GHG emissions
Post harvest employment – processing → vending UK food industry 7.3% GVA)
9-10 bn peopleby 2050
Livestock feed: 40% global grains
Power, control, equality
Models of development
Chronic diseases: CHD, strokes, diabetes, cancers
The convergence converges….
Occupy 70% agricultural land (1/3 arable land)
Consume 40% grains produced
Emit 14.5% global GHG emissions
Main driver of deforestation, biodiversity loss & land degradation
Over 0.75bn poor livestock keepers
Can recycle residues & utilise ‘leftover’ land
70% diseases zoonotic in origin
Major source water pollution
Meat, dairy & nutrition: protein & micronutrients – but saturated fats and energy
Meat – culture, tradition, enjoyment
Use 15%irrigation water
Ethics: Animal rights, animal welfare
Changing cultural attitudes & expectations
Weather & environmental variability
Resource limitations & competition
Cost of inputs
What future do we want?
“The future is already here – it\'s just not evenly distributed”
Social, economic, commercial, political, biophysical influences
Biesbroek S et al. 2014, Reducing our environmental footprint and improving our health: greenhouse gas emission and land use of usual diet and mortality in EPIC-NL: a prospective cohort study. Environmental Health, 13:27
Saxe H (2014). The New Nordic Diet is an effective tool in environmental protection: it reduces the associated socioeconomic cost of diet, Am J ClinNutr doi:10.3945/ajcn.113.066746.
Westhoeket al (2014). Food choices, health and environment: Effects of cutting Europe’s meat and dairy intake, Global Environmental Change
Van Kernebeeket al (2014). The effect of nutritional quality on comparing environmental impacts of human diets, Journal of Cleaner Production xxx 1e-12
Pairottiet al( 2014) Energy consumption and GHG emission of the Mediterranean diet: a systemic assessment using a hybrid LCA-IO method. Journal of Cleaner Production xxx 1e10
Vanhamet al (2013). Potential water saving through changes in European diets Environment International 6145–56
Briggs et al 2013. Assessing the impact on chronic disease of incorporating the societal cost of greenhouse gases into the price of food: an econometric and comparative risk assessment modelling study, BMJ Open.
Vieux et al (2013). High nutritional quality is not associated with low greenhouse gas emissions in self-selected diets of French adults, Am J ClinNutr; 97: 569–83
Smith et al (2013), How much land-based greenhouse gas mitigation can be achieved without compromising food security and environmental goals?. Global Change Biology, 19: 2285–2302. doi: 10.1111/gcb.12160
Aston et al (2012). Impact of a reduced red and processed meat dietary pattern on disease risks and greenhouse gas emissions in the UK: a modelling study. BMJ Open; 2 (5): e001072 DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2012-001072
Stehfestet al (2009) Climate benefits of changing diet. Climatic Change, 95, 1–2.
Frielet al (2009), Public health benefits of strategies to reduce greenhouse-gasemissions: food and agriculture The Lancet, 374: 2016–25.
Define sustainability in environmental terms (often just GHGs)
Are rich-world focused
Ignore wider socio-economic context
Don’t consider other determinants of nutritional status
Don’t consider non-nutritional health implications of food
And so, with these (enormous) provisos, can we define
Academics : nutrition, environment, ag economics, international development
AW, envt, health NGOs