Behavioral cognitive methods
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Behavioral – Cognitive Methods. System Design, Development & Testing. Basic HFE definitions Human-Machine System What are the basic elements of a system that must be considered during system development?

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Behavioral – Cognitive Methods

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Behavioral cognitive methods

Behavioral – Cognitive Methods


System design development testing

System Design, Development & Testing

  • Basic HFE definitions

    • Human-Machine System

    • What are the basic elements of a system that must be considered during system development?

    • Where do the concepts of safety management, biomechanics, anthropometrics, human modeling, human capabilities and limitations, system performance requirements, system component performance, procedures, management processes, cost, life cycle, (etc.) apply?


General characteristics of systems development

General Characteristics of Systems Development

  • Molecularization

  • Requirements as Forcing Functions

  • System Development as Discovery

  • System Development as Transformation

  • Time

  • Cost

  • Iteration

  • Design Competition

  • Priorities

  • Relevance

  • Design Reviews


Behavioral inputs

Behavioral Inputs

  • Selection and acquisition of system personnel

  • Personnel training related issues

  • Inputs affecting design of system hardware, software and procedures

  • Inputs related to testing


Military system acquisition

Military System Acquisition


Behavioral questions during system development

Behavioral Questions during System Development

  • Feasibility Analysis and Program Initiation

  • Demonstration/Validation

  • Full-Scale Engineering Development

  • Production/Deployment


Function analysis

Function Analysis

  • Basic Approaches

  • Terminology

  • Uses of Functional Analysis

  • Hierarchical Nature

  • Methods of Representation


Flow analysis

Flow Analysis

  • Progressive travel (personnel or material) from place to place and/or operation to operation (may include information flow)

  • Process Charts

    • Represent the flow of events and activities (functions) involved in system performance

    • Questions about functions

  • Operation Process Charts

  • Flow Process Charts


Process chart basic symbols

Process Chart Basic Symbols


Flow process chart sample 1

Flow Process Chart Sample 1


Flow process sample 2

Flow Process Sample 2


Flow process chart sample 3

Flow Process Chart Sample 3


Flow diagram

Flow Diagram

  • Symbolically represent the various functions in some process

  • Diagrammatically or drawing based

  • Representative of function’s setting

  • Demonstrates various steps in procedure completion


Flow diagram1

Flow Diagram


Operational sequence diagram

Operational Sequence Diagram

  • Depicts graphically the information-decision sequences in a system necessary to complete a mission or task

  • Three uses:

    • Establish sequence-of-operations requirements

    • Depict logical result of decision-action sequences

    • Evaluate panel layout/workspace design


Operational sequence diagram symbols

Operational Sequence Diagram Symbols


Functional analysis systems technique

Functional Analysis Systems Technique

  • FAST charted as verb,noun two-word statements defining functions

  • Similar to OSD, focus on defining functions and related sequences

  • Not dependent on standard symbols; uses verb-noun descriptions instead

  • Statements placed in boxes to demonstrate sequence


Gang charts

Gang Charts

  • Developed to simultaneously represent more than one sequence of events or activities

  • Multiprocess or multiple activity charts

    • Left-hand, right-hand

    • Gang charts

    • Triple resource charts


Sample gang chart

Sample Gang Chart


Time line analysis

Time-Line Analysis

  • Analytical technique that focuses on human performance deviations based on both functional and temporal loading

  • Requirements can be extended to system elements (vehicles, machines, equipment, computers)

  • Used for workload prediction, analysis, allocation, scheduling


Sample charts human machine gantt

Sample Charts(Human-machine, Gantt)


Network link charts procedures

Network / Link Charts & Procedures

  • Network Analysis

  • Link Analysis

  • Network Diagrams

  • Mathematical Procedures

  • Task Network Modeling


Sample network link charts

Sample Network/Link Charts


Sample critical path network diagram

Sample Critical Path Network Diagram


Sample task network model

Sample Task Network Model


Function allocation

Function Allocation


Background application

Background/Application

  • Process by which design team allocates jobs, tasks, system functions, responsibility to human-system components (human, machine, automation)

  • Considers the relative strengths and weaknesses of each system component

  • Automation is changing the nature of FA; its benefits and limitations are becoming clearer


Procedure

Task Analysis

Stakeholder analysis for FA

Analyze alternative allocations

Human-computer (automation) capabilities – H, H-C, C-H, C

Review allocation results

Explore alternatives

Procedure


Advantages disadvantages

Provides structure for automation decisions

Process ensures automation decisions are traceable

Helps ensure system user will not be inappropriately delegated the role of monitor/supervisor of an automated system

Cost on large scale systems (consider the entire ROI)

Requires familiarity and expertise with both human factors, human performance, and system design

Requires access and participation of system stakeholders

Advantages/Disadvantages


Related methods

Related Methods

  • Task Analysis

  • Sociotechnical systems analysis

  • Stakeholder analysis

  • Safety Management Systems (SMS)


Training application

Analyst familiarity with background methodologies

Experience dealing with human factor

Usually involves entire design team (technical, hardware, software, users, HF personnel, safety, IT, maintenance)

Simple FAs are fairly straightforward and inexpensive

Cost can increase almost exponentially with system complexity

Remember the cost of NOT properly allocating functions

Training/Application


Reliability and validity

Considerable debate about validity of FA

Some think process is deeply flawed (Jordan, 1963; Fuld, 2000)

Two main problems

Failure to coordinate theoretical system FA with practical context

No evidence that misallocation has led to failure (not valid anymore)

No real measures of validity yet.

Reliability and Validity


Tools

Tools

  • Paper and Pencil

  • Automated tools and aids have been developed to facilitate

  • Need for design documentation to audit decisions about FA


Function allocation in manufacturing

Function Allocation in Manufacturing

  • Automation, Robotics and Flexible Manufacturing Systems (FMS)

  • What biomechanics issues do these technologies introduce?

  • What are the issues that must be investigated? How would you investigate them?

  • Do the older methods of allocation still apply?

  • Concepts of Design for Automation (DfA) and Dynamic Function Allocation (DFA)


Task analysis

Task Analysis

  • Early History

  • Nature of Tasks in Technological Systems

  • Definitions

  • Hierarchical Task Analysis (HTA)

  • People engaged in the HTA process

  • Summary of general HTA concepts and terminology


Hierarchical task analysis hta

Hierarchical Task Analysis (HTA)


Tabular format

Tabular Format


Background application1

Background/Application

  • Developed to analyze complex tasks

  • Originally used for repetitive physical work but has been modified to cognitive/knowledge based method due to changes in automation

  • Analysis at the Goal/Operations level

  • Operations decomposed to identify potential for operational failure

  • INPUT – ACTION – FEEDBACK

  • Task decomposition to level of sensible analysis


Procedure1

Purpose of Analysis

Task Goals & Performance Criteria

Sources of Task Info

Acquire Data/Draft Decomposition Table/Diagram

Recheck Decomposition Data

Identify Significant Operations

Generate & Test Hypothetical Solutions

Procedure


Advantages disadvantages1

Widely adaptable

Flexible in terms of detail based on purpose

Exhaustive in its ability to address a problem

Requires considerable training

Requires human performance and human factors knowledge

Requires full participation and collaboration of stakeholders

Significant time and cost

Advantages/Disadvantages


Related methods1

Related Methods

  • Task Analysis for Error Identification (TAFEI)

  • Systematic Human Error Reduction and Prediction Approach (SHERPA)

  • Method for Usability Engineering (MUSE)

  • Sub-Goal Template (SGT)

  • Task Analysis for Knowledge-Based Descriptions (TAKD)


Training application1

Training/Application

  • No formal training although requires considerable experience both with the system, organization, users as well as human factors methods and principles.

  • Level of experience can determine level of analysis quality

  • Work as a team at first or with an experienced human factors professional your first time


Reliability and validity1

Reliability depends on care taken in data acquisition (trash in-trash out)

Don’t downsize recheck stage.

Validity depends on selection and addressing the “correct” or appropriate question.

The question asked in some ways defines the solution derived from this process

No sufficient data on Validity

Reliability and Validity


Tools1

Tools

  • Pencil and Paper method

  • May use data from interviews

  • Tape or video record task performance

  • May want to use a software tool that support group think/group decision making

  • Video tape team or individual behavior in critical operations

  • Don’t fall off the airplane


Cognitive task analysis

Cognitive Task Analysis

  • Next Time !!!


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