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Blacks, Whites and New South. Richard Jensen Sumter 2008. Blacks as 2 nd Class Citizens. Loss of Political Power Segregation Poor services (schools) Sharecroppers Some Farm Owners Leaders: ministers & teachers. After Reconstruction. 1872: “Liberal Republicans” revolt

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Blacks whites and new south

Blacks, Whites and New South

Richard Jensen

Sumter 2008


Blacks as 2 nd class citizens

Blacks as 2nd Class Citizens

  • Loss of Political Power

  • Segregation

  • Poor services (schools)

  • Sharecroppers

  • Some Farm Owners

  • Leaders: ministers & teachers


After reconstruction

After Reconstruction

  • 1872: “Liberal Republicans” revolt

  • Populist revolt of poor white farmers fails (1890-96)

  • PLESSY V. FERGUSON (1896) Segregation ok’d by Supreme Court Disfranchisement (1890s)

  • Lynchings & racial violence (1890-1920)

  • NAACP formed (1906)


Heroic image of kkk in birth of a nation movie 1913

Heroic Image of KKK in “Birth of a Nation” movie 1913


Modernizers wanted to bring industry to south

Modernizers wanted to bring industry to South


Geography 1

Geography- 1

  • RURAL South

  • “black belt”

  • Cotton

  • Also tobacco


Cotton belt black belt

Cotton Belt = Black Belt


Black belt 1910

Black Belt 1910


Then picking cotton by hand

Then: Picking cotton by hand


Then farmers bring in cotton crop

Then: farmers bring in cotton crop


Today machines do the work

Today: machines do the work


South carolina today

South Carolina today

  • Only 900 cotton farms left in the state

  • 2006 2 million jobs in SC:

    • Factories: 260,000 (including 28,000 in textile mills)

    • Construction: 123,000

    • Stores 370,000

    • Education & health: 290,000

    • Tourism 205,000

    • Government 334,000

    • Unemplyed 140,000

    • recent Statistics


Tobacco too

Tobacco Too


Moonshine lawlessness

Moonshine & Lawlessness


Baptist methodist churches grow

Baptist & Methodist Churches Grow


Conditions in 1900

Conditions in 1900

  • Most blacks in rural South

    • Segregation

    • Jim Crow

    • Most in poverty, but making gains

    • Education: little

    • Voting: no in deep South; yes in North; yes in border states

    • Lynchings and threats


Blacks as 2 nd class citizens1

Blacks as 2nd Class Citizens

  • Loss of Political Power

  • Segregation

  • Poor services (schools)

  • Sharecroppers

  • Some Farm Owners

  • Leaders: ministers & teachers


Terminology contested

Terminology: contested

  • Colored (19c)

    • people of color (1980- )

  • Negro (1910-1960)

  • “niggra” (polite South before 1960)

  • Black (1960- )

  • African-American (1980- )

  • N-Word (very nasty term)


South 1865 1940 parallel social structure

White South

upper class

middle class

Farm owner

working class

tenants/ croppers

Black South

upper class

middle class

Farm owner

working class

tenants/ croppers

underclass

South, 1865-1940: Parallel Social Structure


Religious structure

Religious Structure

  • Very high religiosity

  • 65% Baptist, 20% Methodist

    • Also Catholic, Fundamentalist, Muslim

  • own [segregated] churches

  • dominant ministers

    • Adam Clayton Powell (1950s)

    • M L King (1960s)

  • Blacks as Christlike victims

    • Must redeem whites from racism


Segregation era 1880 1964

Segregation Era 1880-1964

  • Exclusion from power & prestige

  • Segregation: De Facto & De Jure

    • Supreme Court approves: Plessy v Ferguson, 1896

    • schools, churches, jobs

    • GEOGRAPHICAL: “BLACK BELT” IN So, cities

  • Politics: Age of White Supremacy

    • Disfranchisement, 1890-1915

    • Lynchings during transition

  • Economic Status: very poor


Disfranchisement 1890 1965

Disfranchisement 1890-1965

  • The attack: Blacks political corrupt; never learned republicanism; system must be purified

  • Defense: racism is even worse form of corruption

  • Result: blacks lose vote in deep South (1890-1965)


Lynching

Lynching


White views 1890 1930

White Views 1890-1930

  • Black and Tans

    • continue interracial coalition

  • Neo-Abolitionists

    • war not over till blacks get equality

  • Paternalists

    • Blacks need education & economic independence before vote

  • White Supremacists

    • zero toleration of black power


Black leadership disputes 1890 1930

Black Leadership Disputes 1890-1930

  • Booker T. Washington, political leader

    • Atlanta speech, 1896 = accept segregation

    • Tuskegee Institute & industrial education

    • Work with T Roosevelt, Carnegie

  • W.E.B. DuBois--intellectual leader; NAACP

    • equality; liberal arts for “talented tenth”

  • Marcus Garvey: Black Nationalism, 1920s


W e b dubois

W E B DuBois


Marcus garvey back to africa 1920

Marcus Garvey & Back to Africa 1920


Drafted into army world war i

Drafted into Army World War I


Migration out of rural south

Migration: out of rural South


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