Body Composition

Body Composition PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Female vs. Males. 3-4 inches shorterWeighs 25 30 lbs less10 15 lbs more fat tissueBoth Men and Women's increase with age. Female vs. Males. Both Men and Women's Body Mass Index increase with age. Ideal Body Fat. 20 27% for femalesObese over 28 19% for malesObese over 23%. Types of Fat in the Body.

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Body Composition

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1. Body Composition

2. Female vs. Males 3-4 inches shorter Weighs 25 – 30 lbs less 10 – 15 lbs more fat tissue Both Men and Women’s increase with age

3. Female vs. Males Both Men and Women’s Body Mass Index increase with age

4. Ideal Body Fat 20 – 27% for females Obese over 28% 15 – 19% for males Obese over 23%

5. Types of Fat in the Body Essential fat: In the muscles, heart, lungs, liver, spleen, intestines, kidneys, and bone marrow Storage Fat: adipose tissue Subcutaneous tissue: the layer of adipose tissue directly beneath the skin Adipose Tissue: fatty tissue Fat tissue protecting the internal organs

6. Difference in body fat % W - Higher percentage of essential fat Women need 12% body fat to maintain their essential body-fat stores maintain metabolic homeostasis When below 12%, women experience amenorrhea and hormone irregularities Men only need 3%

7. Increased BF % and Performance Reduction in Performance Especially Endurance Exercise Any activity that requires Body Weight to be supported W - decreased muscle mass W - Increased BF%

8. Increased BF % and Performance Take a look at Table 2.4 (pg 30-31) Females manipulate and maintain BF% to improve performance Optimal BF% for a sport Aesthetic value of having low BF%

9. Body Type Mesomorph Endomorph Ectomorph

10. Measurement of Body Composition Height-Weight Charts least accurate for health risks Body-mass index Waist-to-hip ratio Skinfold Measurements Tanita (BioElectrical Impedence Analysis) Hydrostatic Weighing Bod-Pod

11. Height-Weight Charts (pg 199) Body Frame size Thumb and middle finger around the wrist No overlap – Large frame Touching or barely overlapping – Medium frame Obvious overlap – Small frame Height in 1” heels and elbow breadth Table 8.3

12. Height-Weight Charts (pg 199) Weight 20% below – Underweight 20% above – Overweight 30% above – Obese

13. Height-Weight Charts (pg 199) Problems Muscularity can throw off chart’s validity Emphasis on body weight rather than body composition Non-Caucasions are underrepresented Age not a factor Weights are too high for young people To low for the elderly Correct for people in 40s

14. Body-Mass Index (BMI) Components Body weight Height Previously Gold Standard Under 25 BMI

15. Interpreting BMI Underweight (under 19) Desirable (19-25) Minimal to low risk Attention to diet Increased physical activity Lifestyle changes Increased health risks (26-29) Moderate risk All of the preceding Low-Calorie diet (800 to 1200 K a day)

16. Interpreting BMI Obese (30-40) High to very high All of the preceding Drug therapy Very low calorie diet Extremely Obese (more than 40) Extremely high risk All of the preceding Surgery intervention

17. Benefits vs Problems Benefits Quick and easy to understand Problems 5- 10% of the population is incorrectly classified as obese or overweight Lowering of standard from 27 to 25 classified 30 million people as overweight Muscular athletes such as 6 foot, 190lb man and 6’ 1”, 220lb man are overweight and obese with BF% of 10% or less

18. Skinfold Measurements Can be taken in either 9, 7, 4 or 3 locations Triceps Biceps Subscapula Suprailiac Abdominal Medial Calf Midaxillary Front Thigh Chest

19. Triceps  Vertical fold Posterior midline of the upper arm Halfway between the acromion (shoulder) and olecranon processes (elbow) Arm held freely to the side of the body

20. Chest Diagonal fold Men: one-half the distance between crease of the underarm and the nipple Women: one-third of the distance between the anterior axillary line and the nipple

21. Midaxillary Vertical or Horizontal fold Midaxillary line at the level of the xiphoid process of the sternum

22. Subscapular Diagonal fold 1 to 2 cm below the inferior angle of the scapula

23. Suprailiac Diagonal fold Anterior axillary line (modern technique) immediately superior to the iliac crest in line with the natural angle of the iliac crest taken Mid-axillary line (traditional technique) Superior to the iliac crest

24. Abdominal Vertical fold 2 cm or 1" to the right side of the umbilicus

25. Vertical fold Anterior midline of the thigh Midway between the proximal border of the patella (upper knee) and the inguinal crease (hip)

26. Other Sites Biceps Vertical fold Anterior aspect of the arm over the belly of the biceps muscle 1 cm above the level used to mark the triceps site Calf Vertical fold maximum circumference of calf on the midline of medial border 

27. Tanita (BIA) A quick, fairly accurate means of determining an individual’s percent of body fat that uses electrodes attached to the wrists and ankles to determine the percentage electronically

28. Hydrostatic Weighing A method of measuring body fat by submerging an individual in water Current Gold Standard for BF% Testing Procedure Sit on a scale in a tank of water Exhales as completely as possible Then submerged for approximately 10 seconds while his or her weight is recorded.

29. Hydrostatic Weighing Proportions of lean body mass and fat mass are determined from calculations that involve Weight underwater Weight out of water Known densities of lean and fatty tissues

30. Hydrostatic Weighing

31. Waist-to-Hip Ratio Provides an indication where you store fat Obese people Abdominal area rather than hips and thighs Higher risk for coronary heart disease, high bp, congestive heart failure, strokes and diabetes Hips and thighs Lower risk for the above diseases Men WTH ratio of > 1 Recommends weight lost Women WTH ratio of > .85 Recommends weight lost

34. Bod Pod

35. Bid Pod

36. Bod Pod BOD POD testing is fast and non-invasive. The total time: 5-10 minutes Test Details Changing into a bathing suit and putting on a swim cap. Having height and weight measured. Sitting quietly inside a chamber for 5 min Body composition is measured through small pressure changes (1st to 2nd floor) Nose clip and breath normally into mouth piece then 3 gentle puffs

37. Bod Pod Preparation Clothing: Skin tight (lycra/spandex) and dry bathing suit and swim cap No jewelry or eyeglasses, etc Pre-test: No food/drink (including water) for 2 hours pre-test. No strenuous exercise for 2 hours pre-test. Void bladder. No showering for 1 hour pre-test. Subjects must be completely rested and still

38. Bod Pod Advantages: Short measurement time (5-10 minutes) Non-invasive and comfortable for subjects Accommodates a variety of populations: participants up to 7 feet tall, 50 - 500 lbs, elderly, children, disabled, infirm Suitable for repeated measurements Only minimal compliance from the individual is required Operators do not require a high degree of technical skill or training Mobile, suitable for field testing

39. Bod Pod Limitations: Pre-test protocol must be consistently followed for optimal results Subject to occasional random results Constant environmental and biological conditions must be maintained Thoracic gas volume measurement/estimates are a source of error Potential subject discomfort wearing bathing suit/tight-fitting clothes claustrophobia

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