Chapters 27-28
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Chapters 27-28. The Rise of Totalitarian States 1919 – 1939 and World War II 1939 - 1945. Common Themes. 3 States [Russia, Italy, & Germany] Unhappy with the results of WWI Growing populations led to social unrest in overcrowded cities Popular socialist parties. Revolution in Russia.

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Chapters 27-28

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Chapters 27 28

Chapters 27-28

The Rise of Totalitarian States 1919 – 1939 and World War II 1939 - 1945


Chapters 27 28

Common Themes

  • 3 States [Russia, Italy, & Germany]

    • Unhappy with the results of WWI

    • Growing populations led to social unrest in overcrowded cities

    • Popular socialist parties


Chapters 27 28

Revolution in Russia

  • Fall of the Monarchy {Romanov Dynasty}

  • Tsar Nicholas II was an autocrat [ruled without consent of parliament]

  • Tsar Nicholas II’s only son Alexis suffered from hemophilia

  • doctors’ had difficulty controlling Alexis’ bleeding.

  • Siberian Monk named Rasputin had mysterious powers enabling him to control Alexis’ bleeding.


Chapters 27 28

Revolution in Russia

  • Gregory Rasputin [1869-1916]

    • Became close to the Tsarina Alexandra

    • Influenced public policy during WWI while Nicholas II was at the front and Alexandra ruled at home

    • Was despised by the Russian people

    • Was always intoxicated and had numerous sexual affairs with women

    • Rumors spread in St. Petersburg that he was involved with Alexandra


Chapters 27 28

The Murder of Rasputin 1916

Rasputin wrote this prophecy the day before he died on Dec.30, 1916. He predicted that if Nicholas' relatives were responsible for his death, then the Tsar and his children would all die "within two years." Prince Yussoupov, a Romanov relative, murdered Rasputin; a year and a half later Bolsheviks killed the Tsar's family.

“If I am killed by common assassins and especially by my brothers the Russian peasants, you, Tsar of Russia, have nothing to fear for your children, they will reign for hundreds of years in Russia.

...if it was your relations who have wrought my death, then no one in your family, that is to say, none of your children or relations will remain alive for two years. They will be killed by the Russian people...

I shall be killed. I am no longer among the living. Pray, pray, be strong, think of your blessed family.”

Grigory

Prince Yussopov


Chapters 27 28

1st Russian Revolution March 1917

  • Democratic Revolution led by Alexander Kerensky forced the Tsar to abdicate.

  • Called for new elections and a constitution

  • Continued to fight in WWI on the Allied side – big mistake

    • Russian troops began to mutiny creating soldiers’ soviets


Chapters 27 28

2nd Russian Revolution Nov. 1917

  • Bolshevik Revolution

  • Vladimir Lenin led cupp against the Kerensky government

  • Lenin installs a communist regime

  • Gets Russia out of the war by surrendering to Germany and signing the Treaty of Brest-Litvosk (1918)‏

    • Russia loses the Baltic States and Ukraine to Germany


Chapters 27 28

Russian Civil War 1917 - 1921

  • White Forces [anti-communists] those loyal to the Tsar or the Kerensky government

  • Red Forces [communists]

  • Allies [Britain, France and US] were upset Russia dropped out of the war. Allies aid the White Forces with guns and troops.

  • Red Army was successful in defeating the White Army

  • Nicholas & Family are executed by the communists in 1918


Chapters 27 28

Lenin’s Soviet Union

Lenin creates a Soviet Socialist Republic

Encourages the spread of Revolution throughout Europe

Plan to convert the Russian economy to a communist system is a compromise for Lenin allows some private ownership called the New Economic Policy or NEP

Assassination attempt on Lenin in 1918 fails.

Died in 1924. Warned comrades against Josef Stalin.


Chapters 27 28

Stalin’s Soviet Union

Josef Stalin is communist party secretary

Uses position to consolidate power

Executes anyone who challenges his authority

Killed an estimated 20 million Russians including 80% of the Red Army’s Officers above the rank of captain in 1930s Purges.

Ruthlessly converts Russian to communism and makes it an industrial power in a series of 5 Year Plans


Chapters 27 28

Rise of Mussolini

  • Benito Mussolini [1883 – 1945]

  • Fear of socialist revolution in Italy led to the popularity of Mussolini’s Fascist party.

  • 1922 Mussolini threatened to March on Rome if the Fascists were not allowed to govern.

  • King Vittorio Emanuele III gave in and made Mussolini Prime Minister

  • Mussolini eventually made Italy a Fascist Dictatorship allowing him to rule by decree, although he was still subordinate to the King


Chapters 27 28

Italian Fascism

  • Accomplishments

    • Pact with Catholic Church.

    • Expanded Italy’s territorial ambitions by taking Ethiopia and Albania

    • Increased Italy’s population by encouraging women to have babies. Working women having children were given job promotions, while bachelors were taxed heavily.

    • Propaganda fed Italian children with slogans such as “Mussolini is always right” and “believe, obey, fight”.

  • Failures

    • Attempts to indoctrinate Italians in fascist ideology fell short. Propaganda fed Italian children with slogans such as “Mussolini is always right” and “believe, obey, fight” was often laughed at.

    • Police state was no where as thorough and brutal as in Germany or Russia

    • Never eliminated or controlled old power structures [Monarchy and army] King Emanuelle would eventually remove Mussolini from power in 1943.


Chapters 27 28

Adolf Hitler

  • Adolf Hitler [1889 – 1945]

  • Born in Austria, did not become a German Citizen until shortly before becoming Chancellor

  • Served in a Bavarian regiment of the German army during WWI. Earned 2 iron cross medals.

  • Personality

    • Man of contrast

    • Consistent views

    • Infantile

    • Mesmerizing and persuasive speaker

    • Able to remember minute details


Chapters 27 28

Weimar Germany: Government

  • Socialist Party assumed power after the Kaiser abdicated in 1918.

  • Socialist Party signed the Treaty of Versailles.

  • Too many political parties created chaos in government and violence on the streets.

  • Hitler blamed the socialists and Jews for the defeat in WWI [Stab in the Back Theory] and for the humiliation of Versailles.

  • Hitler looked to recruit members of the Freikorps, WWI vets who fought communists in the streets, for his new party.


Chapters 27 28

Weimar Germany: Culture

  • Culture

    • Counter Culture, Decadence, and Cultural Zenith?

      • Bauhaus architecture: Walter Gropius

      • Existential Philosophy: Heidegger

      • Film: Marlene Dietrich

      • Literature: Erich Maria Remarque [Erich Paul Remark] “All Quiet on the Western Front”

      • Cabaret

      • Avant-garde modern art

      • Jazz

    • Changing mores

      • Women’s dress and behavior

      • Homosexuality became more open

      • Alcohol and drug addictions [morphine]

    • Some conservative elements in society saw Weimar culture as decadent


Chapters 27 28

Weimar Germany: Economy

  • Hyperinflation 1923

  • 1924-29 economic stability provided by American bankers

  • Great Depression 1930-1932

    • Increasing unemployment led to dissatisfaction with the Weimar government

    • Communists and Nazis were the biggest gainers in terms of competing for votes.

  • Unemployment numbers

    • 1929 = 1.25 million

    • 1930 = 3 million

    • 1931 = 4.5 million

    • 1932 = 6 million

  • Nazi Party seats in the Reichstag {Parliament}

    • 1928 = 12[2%]

    • 1930 = 107 [18%]

    • 1932 = 230[38%] July election

    • 1932 = 196[33%] November election


  • Chapters 27 28

    Nazi Rise to Power

    • Beer Hall Putsch 1923

      • Hitler and the Nazis try to take over the state government of Bavaria. Their March on the city hall in Munich ends with Hitler’s arrest.

      • Sentenced to 5 years in prison but serves only 9 months

        • Writes “Mein Kampf” [My struggle] in prison.

    • Great Depression

      • Increasing unemployment and communist unrest leads many Germans to view the Nazis as the lesser of two evils.

    • Chancellor

      • 1932 elections Hitler’s loses his bid to win the Presidency but is eventually named Chancellor on January 30, 1933 by President Hindenburg.


    Chapters 27 28

    Nazi Consolidation of Power

    • Factors Making Hitler a Dictator

      • Reichstag Fire [February 1933]

        • Hitler abolishes Communist Party, Nazis get communist seats

        • Calls for new Reichstag elections, Nazis fail to get majority

      • Enabling Act [March 1933]

        • Reichstag grants Hitler dictorial power to meet communist threat

        • Hitler abolished all political parties except the Nazis

      • Death of President Hindenburg [1934]

        • Reichstag abolished post of President, makes Hitler Fuehrer or Leader.


    Chapters 27 28

    Hitler’s Domestic Program

    • Coordination & Control

      • Concentration Camps: Political prisoners and asocial elements

        • Dachau near Munich 1st camp

      • All unions were abolished and reformed into one Nazi Union

      • Hitler Youth Organizations

      • Ministry of Propaganda & Enlightenment

        • Headed by Dr. Joseph Goebbels

        • Films, radios, news papers indoctrinated Germans in the Nazi viewpoints.


    Chapters 27 28

    Hitler’s Domestic Program

    • Rearmament

      • Rebuilding German war machine put people back to work

      • Public Works Projects

        • Autobahn

        • Re-forestation

      • Volkswagen Project [People’s Car]

    • Persecution of Jews

      • Laws eliminating Jews from Public life in Germany


    Chapters 27 28

    Hitler’s Foreign Policy

    • Primary Goals

      • Destroy Treaty of Versailles

        • Withdrew from League of Nations in 1933

        • Creation of German Air-force and Navy.

      • Greater Germany: union of all German speaking peoples

        • Saar Plebicite 1935

        • Annexed Austria 1938

        • Annexed Sudetenland 1938

      • Lebensraum [Living Space]

        • Space for the German empire to grow


    Europe heads toward the abyss

    Europe Heads Toward the Abyss

    • The Spanish Civil War [1936-39]

      • Coalition of Leftists, Communists, and Liberals won elections in 1936.

      • Group of conservatives, led General Francisco Franco staged an uprising. Franco called for the creation of a Fascist state.

    • International Intervention

      • Germany & Italy support Franco diplomatically, militarily and financially.

      • Russia supports the Republican Government.

      • Britain, France, & US did not take sides.

      • By 1939, Franco and the Fascists won.

    • Pablo Picasso’s depiction of the horror of modern warfare. German air attacks on April 26, 1937 killed 1,500 people in Guernica.


    Chapters 27 28

    Appeasement

    • Appeasement means making concessions to a dictator in the hope that he is satiated [fully satisfied].

    • Why appeasement?

      • Large scale loss of life in WWI battles made Britain and France want to avoid war at all cost.

    • Isolationism in the US

      • Most Americans preferred to stay clear of European conflicts and chose to not take sides in European disputes.

    Hitler & Chamberlain meet

    to avoid war in 1938.


    Appeasement

    Appeasement

    Appeasement means making concessions to a dictator in the hope that he is satiated [fully satisfied].

    Why appeasement?

    Large scale loss of life in WWI battles made Britain and France want to avoid war at all cost.

    Isolationism in the US

    Most Americans preferred to stay clear of European conflicts and chose to not take sides in European disputes.

    Hitler & Chamberlain meet

    to avoid war in 1938.


    Chapters 27 28

    Europe on the Verge of War 1938-1939

    • Munich Crisis [September 1938]

      • Hitler Demanded Czechoslovakia cede the Sudetenland to Germany, threatened war.

      • Mussolini mediates, gets Britain & France to meet Hitler in Munich

      • Appeasement [giving dictators what they want hoping they are satisfied]

      • Hitler gets the Sudetenland and promises no more demands in europe

      • March 1939 Hitler occupies the rest of Czechoslovakia. Britain & France vow to defend Poland

    • Polish Corridor Crisis [Summer 1939]

      • Hitler demands Poland return the corridor and city of Danzig [Gdansk] to Germany.

      • Poland refuses.

      • German – Russian Non-Aggression Pact: Germany and Russia vow to not fight one another and secretly agree to carve up Poland.

      • September 1, 1939 Germany invades Poland

      • September 3, 1939 Britain and France declare war


    Chapters 27 28

    World War II : Europe

    • Blitzkrieg 1939-1942

      • Quick victories by the German Army led the press to dub the new method of mechanized warfare by the Germans as blitzkrieg [lightning war].

      • Poland: Defeated in 6 weeks Sept – Oct ’39

      • Denmark & Norway conquered in April – May ‘40

      • Benelux Countries and France were defeated in 6 weeks in May – June ’40

      • Yugoslavia & Greece defeated in Spring ’41

      • Most of North Africa was in German hands by 1942


    Chapters 27 28

    World War II : Europe

    • Operation Barbarossa: War in Russia 1941- 1945

      • 3 million German troops attacked on a 1000 mile front

      • Hitler anticipated an easy victory

        • Initial success was eventually met with frustration and inhospitable weather

      • War in Russia drained Germany’s resources


    Chapters 27 28

    World War II : Europe

    • The Turning Point 1942

      • Battle of Stalingrad [Nov ’42-Jan ’43]: Russian victory was a turning point in the East.

      • El Alamein Nov. 1942 British victory began the removal of German troops from North Africa

      • Battle of the Atlantic 1942: decoding of German enigma machine [send orders via codes] allowed Allies to hunt down German u-boats.

    • End of Days 1944-45

      • D-Day June 6, 1944: American-British invasion of France

      • Operation Bagration: Russian Offensive that destroyed much of the German army in the East

      • Battle of Berlin April-May 1945:

        • Hitler commits suicide in his underground bunker on April 30th.

        • May 7, 1945 German forces surrender


    Chapters 27 28

    World War II: Pacific

    • Japanese Aggression

      • Manchuria 1933

      • China 1937: Japanese Forces committed atrocities against the Chinese people

      • French Indochina [Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia] 1941

        • US retaliated with economic sanctions; determined Japan’s decision to attack the US

    • Pearl Harbor December 7, 1941

      • Japanese sneak attack was intended to cripple to US Pacific fleet but not defeat the US

        • Failed to get US aircraft carriers which ended up being the most important weapons in the Pacific War


    Chapters 27 28

    World War II: Pacific

    • Turning Point

      • Battle of Midway 1942

        • US sank 4 Japanese aircraft carriers

        • Japanese Navy would be on defensive

      • Battle of Guadalcanal 1942

        • Protected Australia from Japanese attacks

    • US Strategy

      • Island Hopping: emphasis on taking islands that offered Naval and Air bases to attack Japan

      • Philippines recaptured in 1944

      • Iwo Jima & Okinawa: battles close to Japanese Islands were costly and violent


    The holocaust 1933 1945

    The Holocaust 1933 - 1945

    • Phase I 1933-1935

      • Elimination of Jews from Public Life

      • Nurnemberg Laws defined who was Aryan and who wasn't

    • Phase II 1936-1938

      • Lull because of 1936 Olympic games in Garmisch and Berlin

      • Kristallnacht November 9, 1938

    • Phase III 1939-45

      • Stage I

        • Einsatzgruppen in the East

        • Establishment of Ghettos

      • Stage II

        • Final Solution established at Wansee Conference Jan 1942


    The holocaust 1933 45

    The Holocaust 1933-45

    • Phase III 1939-45

      • Stage I

        • Einsatzgruppen in the East

          • Killed about 1 million Jews in Eastern Europe via this method.

          • Problem...mentally draining on soldiers and time consuming

        • Establishment of Ghettos

      • Stage II

        • Final Solution established at Wansee Conference Jan 1942

          • Adolf Eichmann was man responsible for policy

        • Utilization of Death Camps located in Poland. Zyklon B used to kill in Auschwitz


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