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Article 2. Group members: General 9310026A Isaac 9310028A Peggy 9310032A Judy 9310036A. A DRAMATURGICAL LOOK AT INTERVIEW . Interview:

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Group members general 9310026a isaac 9310028a

Article 2

Group members:

General 9310026A

Isaac 9310028A

Peggy 9310032A

Judy 9310036A

A dramaturgical look at interview



1. It is defined simply as conversation with a purpose

that is to gather information.

2. It is a kind of face-to-face interaction

Different descriptions of interview

Different descriptions of interview:

1. An art

2. Technical skill

3. Face-to-face interaction

Dramaturgy and interviwing


Two stages of research:

1. getting in=>techniques and analysis to get the


2. analysis=> make sense of the information


1. It’s defined as the art of writing and producing

plays in the dictionary.

2. Here, it means interview could be designed by

dramaturgic way.

Types of interviews


There are three different types of interviews:

1. Standardized (formal) interview

2. Unstandardized (informal) interview

3. Semistandardized interview

The standardized interview

The Standardized Interview

1.Standardized interview means interviewers use

formally structured schedule of interview questions to

ask interviewees.

2.The purpose of standardized interviews are designed to get information from interviewees by a set of predetermined questions that related to the study.

The unstandardized interview

The Unstandardized Interview

1. Interviewers doesn’t use predetermined schedule of

interview questions to ask interviewees.

2. Interviewers begin with the assumption that they don’t know in advance what all necessary questions are.

3. It allows interviewers to get additional information that they don’t observe in the questionnaires.

4. It is useful when interviewers are not familiar with respondents.

The semi standardized interview

The Semistandardized Interview

1.It’s located between standardized and unstandardized

interviewing structures.

2. The questions of semistandardized interview are asked of each interviewee in systematic and

consistent order, but interviewers are allowed to ask

questiones that not totally follow the sequence of predetermined questions.

The interview schedule

The Interview Schedule

Interview is an effective method of collecting

information, but the use of interview format depends on

what kinds of questions you want to ask and the sorts

of answers you expected to be offered.

For example:

Frequency of smoking=>Using questionnaires

Feeling of smoking =>Using interview

Schedule development


1.Beginging interview with outline that lists all study-related categories.

For example :

1. Background of interviewee

2. Reason of smoking

3. Influence of smoking



……………………… ..

Question order content and style

Question Order, Content, and Style

1.The Specific ordering, phrasing, level of language ,

limit to subject matter , and general style depend on

the educational and social level of interviewees.

  • Four types of questions must be included in the

    survey instrument.

    a. essential questions

    b. extra questions

    c. throw-away questions

    d. probing questions

Group members general 9310026a isaac 9310028a

Essential Question:

It specially relates to the central focus of the study , so it

would be placed throughout the survey.

For example:

Central focus=>the effect of CAI on college students’ writing

50 questions=> follow the central focus to design

Extra questions

Extra Questions

  • Check on the reliable of responses or measure the possible influence a change of wording might have

    Throw-Away Questions

  • Used to develop rapport between interviews and subjects

  • Move away from the sensitive area and gives the interviewee a moment cool out

Probing questions

Probing Questions

  • Let interviewers know more complete stories from subjects

    ex: Could you tell me more about that?

    What happen next? How come?

    Question Wording

  • Researchers have to word questions so that interviewees will provide the necessary data

Communicating effectively

Communicating Effectively

  • Clearly communicate to the subjects

  • Conduct the level or language of the respondents

A few common problems in question formulation

A Few Common Problems In Question Formulation

  • Affectively Worded Questions

  • The Double- Barreled Question

  • Complex Questions

  • Question Sequencing

Affectively worded questions

Affectively Worded Questions

  • Affective words usually arouse most people some emotional response

    ex: word ”why”, Americans tend to produce negative responses, and they may not respond accurately or completely

  • Avoiding affective words and asking in response, interviewee may offer complete responses.

The double barreled question

The Double- Barreled Question

  • This type of question asks a subject to respond simultaneously to two issues in a single question

    ex: Do you use phonics to read, or you use K.K?

  • Separate the two issues and ask separate questions

Complex questions

Complex Questions

  • A long, complex question, interviewee may not really hear the question entirely, so they may respond only some small portion of the question

  • Keeping questions brief and concise allows clear responses and more effective analysis of the answers

Question sequencing

Question Sequencing

  • Begin with mild, nonthreatening questions

  • The arrangement or ordering of question in an interview may significantly effect the result

Pretesting the schedule

Pretesting The Schedule

Two steps:

  • The schedule should be critically examined by other people familiar with the study subject

  • In pretesting before the instrument can be used in a real study involves several practice interviews

Conducting an interview a natural or an unnatural communication

Conducting An Interview: A Natural or An Unnatural Communication?

  • The research interview is not a natural communicate exchange

    evasion tactics: no further discussion of a specific issue

    or in a particular area

    deference ceremony: to respect others

The dramaturgical interview

The Dramaturgical Interview

  • The difference between Interview’s role and roles an interviewer may perform

  • Role- taking: interviewer may shape, change even create the role images

Interviewer roles and rapport

Interviewer Roles and Rapport

  • The interviewer’s appearance, accreditation, sponsorship and characteristics are important to interviewing.

Group members general 9310026a isaac 9310028a

  • To know in advance whether various strategies undertaken by interviewer will be interpreted correctly by the interviewee.

Group members general 9310026a isaac 9310028a

  • Interviewers clearly can made effective use of elements and actors in the natural environment in order to develop working relationships with their subjects.

The interviewer a self conscious performer

The Interviewer a Self-Conscious Performer

  • Actions, lines, roles, and routines must be carefully prepared and rehearsed in advance and thus constitute a self-conscious performance.

Social interpretations and the interviewer

Social Interpretations and the Interviewer

  • Social interpretations are defined as the affected messages transferred from one acting individual to another through nonverbal channels.

Group members general 9310026a isaac 9310028a

  • Interviewer must hear not only what the subjects say, but also how they say it.

  • To some extent, the interactions in an interview are also unconscious, which does not necessarily mean unintended.

  • Unconscious behaviors should be understand as a second-nature behaviors.

Group members general 9310026a isaac 9310028a

  • Interviewer as Actor

  • Interviewer as Director

  • Interviewer as Choreographer

The interviewer s repertoire

The Interviewer’s Repertoire

  • Preparation is a major guideline in interviewing.

  • Make interviewee feel more comfortable with the idea of being interviewed.

Interviewer s attitudes and persuading a subject

Interviewer’s attitudes affect “the quality of the resulting the research.”

Novice interviewers→ nervous

Most subjects might ask” why me?”

→Best answer: You were chosen by chance according to a random selection procedure.

Interviewer’s Attitudes and Persuading a Subject

Group members general 9310026a isaac 9310028a

  • If subjects have no time? What should we do?

  • Time is flexible.

    (Late evening hours, lunch breaks.)

Developing an interviewer repertoire

Developing an Interviewer Repertoire

  • Practice! Practice! Practice!

  • Role- playing with more experienced interviewers.

The ten commandments of interviewing

The Ten Commandments of Interviewing

1. Never begin an interview cold.

→Chatting with the subject first. Let them feel comfortable.

2. Remember your purpose.

→ Memorized your questions.

3.Present a natural front.

→ Be relaxed, affirmative, and natural.

Group members general 9310026a isaac 9310028a

4. Demonstrate aware hearing.

→ Listen to what they say, and respond.

5. Think about appearance.

→Depend on who you are interviewing.

6. Interview in a comfortable place.

→Depend on where your subject like.

Group members general 9310026a isaac 9310028a

7. Don’t be satisfied with monosyllabic answers.

→Ask them to give more information by simple pause or an uncomfortable silence.

8. Be respectful.

→Make the subject feel they are very important.

9. Practice, practice, and practice some more.

→Do interviews.

10. Be cordial and appreciative.

→ Remember to thank the subject.

Analyzing data obtained from the dramaturgical interview


  • Step-by-step

  • Take note

Beginning an analysis

Beginning an Analysis

  • Content analysis

  • How to organize and prepare the data?

Systematic filing systems

Systematic Filing Systems

  • Purpose: Know the data easily, flexibly, and efficiently.

  • How to separate the categories?

    → Similarities and dissimilarities

  • Major topic →subtopics or themes

Index sheets

Index sheets

Online Grammar Learning【Major Topic/Theme】


Effective :

#2 I think it is workable

#13 I love doing online grammar learning

No interaction:

#8 there are no classmates and teacher.

#3 I think online learning is boring.

Short answer sheets

Short-Answer Sheets

  • Write down short responses for each question

    →For example: yes, no, or unclear.

  • Use for cross-reference summary

Analysis procedures a concluding remark

Analysis Procedures: A Concluding Remark

  • Researchers need to examine everything that is important.

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