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Fundamental of Chemistry Fourth Edition Frank Brescia John Arents Herbert Meislich Amos Turk The City College of the City University of New York Academic Press (1980) A Subsidiary of Harcourt Brace Javanovich, Publishers New York London Toronto Sidney San Francisco No Buku 540.1/Bre/f.

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Fundamental of ChemistryFourth Edition Frank BresciaJohn ArentsHerbert MeislichAmos TurkThe City College of the City University of New YorkAcademic Press (1980)A Subsidiary of Harcourt Brace Javanovich, PublishersNew York London Toronto Sidney San FranciscoNo Buku540.1/Bre/f


Some fundamental tools of chemistry
Some Fundamental Tools of Chemistry

  • Scientific Methods for Chemists

  • Measurement and the International System of Units

  • Significant Figures in Measurement

  • Conversion Factors

  • Precision and Accuracy

  • Pure Substances

  • Self-test

  • Additional Problems


Objects
Objects

  • Objects are most of items whose shape or construction has some particular function or some recognizeble identity, for example:

  • A chair to sit on

  • A cup to drink from

  • A book to read

  • A rock that is interesting to look at


Materials bahan
Materials (Bahan)

  • Slivers of wood is no longer a chair

  • Granules of porcelain is no longer a cup

  • A paper is no longer a book

  • Coarse sand is no longer a rock

  • Wood, porcelain, paper, sand – you no longer call them objects;

  • They are materials


Matter and substance
Matter and Substance

  • Materials are samples of matter, which is simply the stuff of which the universe consists.

  • a substance is a material that has a definite composition.

  • Sugar is a sample of substance

  • The chemists often thinks of a substance as being a pure material.


Chemistry
Chemistry

  • Chemistry is the study of the properties and transformation of materials


Material classification
Material Classification

  • Shredded books (1)

  • Shredded newspapers (2)

  • Shredded milk cartons (3)

  • (1) (2) and (3) come from same materials: paper

  • They all can burn (properties)

  • (1) (2) and (3) are combustible matter


Material classification1
Material Classification

  • Porcelaine

  • Sand

  • They are non combustible matter (properties)


Scientific method
Scientific Method

  • Steps:

  • “Pure”/unprejudiced observation

  • Hypothesis

  • Theory

  • Law


Element unsur
Element (Unsur)

  • Kayu dipanaskan  tersisa arang = karbon

  • Kertas dipanaskan  tersisa arang = karbon

  • Gula dipanaskan  tersisa arang = karbon

  • Karbon dibakar lagi  tetap karbon

  • Karbon tak dapat diuraikan lagi (nondecomposable)

  • Substance yang tak dapat diuraikan lagi disebut element (unsur)


Element unsur name background
Element (Unsur) Name Background

  • Uranium (mengambilnama Planet Uranus)

  • Mercury (mengambilnama Planet Mercury)

  • Curium ( Marie Curie)

  • Einsteinium ( Albert Einstein)

  • Fermium ( Enrico Fermi)

  • Francium ( France)

  • Germanium ( Germany)

  • Polonium ( Poland)


Element unsur name background1
Element (Unsur) Name Background

  • Berkelium (Berkeley, California)

  • Yttrium, Ytterbium, Erbium (Ytterby, Sweden)

  • Europium ( Europe)

  • Xenon ( Greek: xenos, a stranger)

  • Hydrogen ( Greek: hydro, water; and genes, producing)


Simbol element unsur
Simbol Element (Unsur)

  • H = Hydrogen

  • He = Helium

  • C = Carbon

  • Ca = Calcium

  • Cr = Chrom = Chromium

  • N = Nitrogen

  • Na = Natrium = English: Sodium

  • Ne = Neon

  • O = Oxygen

  • F = Fluor

  • Fe = Ferrum = English: Iron = Besi


Simbol element
Simbol Element

  • Mg = Magnesium

  • B = Boron = Borium

  • Ba = Barium

  • Cl = Chlorin = Chlor = Chlorium

  • Al = Alumunium

  • Ag = Argentum

  • S = Sulfur

  • Si = Silicon = Silisium

  • P = Phosphor

  • K = Kalium = English : Potassium

  • DsttolongdipelajariDaftarPeriodikUnsur-Unsur


Measurement and the international system of units
Measurement and The International System of Units

Metric System French Revolution in 1799  International System of Units (Systeme International d’Unites – SI) at the Metric Convention in Paris in 1875

Quantity Unit Symbol

Length meter m

Mass kilogram kg

Time second s

Temperature kelvin K

Amount of substance mole mol

Luminous intensity candela cd


Si rule
SI Rule

  • The beaker contains 5 g of mercury - TRUE

  • The beaker contains 5 g. of mercury – FALSE

  • The beaker contains 5 gs of mercury - FALSE


Si prefix
SI prefix

  • Multiple or fraction Prefix Symbol

  • 1012tera T

  • 109giga G

  • 106 mega M

  • 103 kilo k

  • 10-1deci d

  • 10-2centi c

  • 10-3milli m

  • 10-6 micro 

  • 10-9nano n

  • 10-12pico p

  • 10-15femto f

  • 10-18atto a


Conversion of some common units
Conversion of some common units

  • 1 angstrom = 1 A0

  • = 10-10 m

  • = 10-8 cm

  • = 10-1 nm

  • 1 in = 0.0254 m = 2.54 cm

  • 1 mi = 1.609 km

  • 1 m3 = 103 L

  • 1 L = 103mL = 1.057 quart (U.S., liquid)

  • 1 ft3 (U.S.) = 28.32 L

  • 1 kg = 2.205 lb


Length
Length

  • Platinum – Iridium bar at the International Bureau


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