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Strategies for Effective Instruction Marc W. Zolar April 5, 2006 Presented to: Central Carolina Community College Sanford, NC. About the Presenter: Marc Zolar. Marc is an instructional design consultant and certified distance learning mentor. He has a broad professional background

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Strategies for Effective InstructionMarc W. ZolarApril 5, 2006Presented to:Central Carolina Community CollegeSanford, NC

about the presenter marc zolar
About the Presenter: Marc Zolar

Marc is an instructional design consultant and certified distance

learning mentor. He has a broad professional background

spanning the corporate, government and academic sectors.

The list of organizations Mr. Zolar has worked with on learning

and development programs includes: America Online, American

Research Institute, AT&T, Central Carolina Community College,

Florida State University, IBM, U.S. Department of Defense, United

State Marine Corps, University of North Carolina at Wilmington,

Verizon, Walden University.

He holds a Master’s degree in instructional design and

development and is active in professional organizations in the

field as a writer and speaker.

Marc can be reached at [email protected]

today s topics
Today’s Topics
  • Constructivism and Adult Learning Principles
  • Lecture vs. Facilitation
  • Blended Learning approaches
  • Giving students ownership in the learning process
  • Accommodating different learning styles
  • Reflective activity
today s approach
Today’s Approach
  • This room as a Community of Learning.
  • Presentation of content and ideas for open discussion.
  • Collect Best Practices.
sharing your thoughts
Sharing your thoughts?
  • What is your guiding philosophy about teaching?
topic 1
Topic 1

Constructivism And Adult Learning Principles

what is constructivism
What is Constructivism?

“Constructivism is a philosophy of learning founded on the premise that, by reflecting on our experiences, we construct our own understanding of the world we live in. Each of us generates our own "rules" and "mental models," which we use to make sense of our experiences. Learning, therefore, is simply the process of adjusting our mental models to accommodate new experiences.“

(Source: http://www.funderstanding.com/constructivism.cfm)

principles of constructivism
Principles of Constructivism
  • Learning is a search for meaning
  • Learning occurs in a context
  • Instruction is tailored to learners’ mental models
  • Constructing knowledge is purpose of learning (not “right” vs. “wrong”)

(Source: Zolar, M. Constructivism 101. NC Quest Program, University of North Carolina at Wilmington.)

impact on curriculum
Impact on Curriculum
  • Less standardized curriculum
  • Customized to connect to learner’s prior knowledge
  • Emphasizes hands-on problem- solving

(Source: Zolar, M. Constructivism 101. NC Quest Program, University of North Carolina at Wilmington.)

impact on instruction
Impact on Instruction
  • Teacher as facilitator/guide rather than authority
  • Focus on making connections between facts
  • Experimentation, open-ended questions, extensive reflection, dialogue among students

(Source: Zolar, M. Constructivism 101. NC Quest Program, University of North Carolina at Wilmington.)

impact on assessment
Impact on Assessment
  • Ongoing assessment during instruction
  • De-emphasizes traditional grading methods
  • Self-assessment, learner articulates growth through projects and reflection

(Source: Zolar, M. Constructivism 101. NC Quest Program, University of North Carolina at Wilmington.)

constructivist strategies
Constructivist Strategies
  • Inquiry learning
  • Discovery learning
  • Situational learning
  • Problem-based learning
  • Cognitive Apprenticeship

(Source: Zolar, M. Constructivism 101. NC Quest Program, University of North Carolina at Wilmington.)

constructivist words and phrases
Constructivist Words and Phrases
  • Context
  • Authentic
  • Multiple perspectives
  • Learner-centered
  • Prior knowledge
  • Higher-order thinking
  • Meaningful connections
  • Social negotiation

(Source: Zolar, M. Constructivism 101. NC Quest Program, University of North Carolina at Wilmington.)

discussion question activity 1
Discussion Question/Activity #1
  • List some constructivist strategies that you currently use, or could easily implement in your classroom.
what is adult learning theory andragogy
What is Adult Learning Theory (Andragogy)?

“Andragogy is a theory developed by Malcolm Knowles which attempts to describe how adults learn. His hypothesis was that adult learning could not follow the principles of traditional pedagogy in which teachers are responsible for making decisions about what will be learned, how it will be learned and when it will be learned. Because adults in general are more self-directed, they should take control of their own learning. The definition of an adult, however, is not strictly related to age. Knowles (1980) himself, defined adulthood as "the point at which individuals perceive themselves to be essentially self-directing". “

(Source: http://claweb.cla.unipd.it/home/cwhigham/cam_hy_whig/andragogy.htm)

how are adult learners different
How are Adult Learners Different?
  • They are self-directed
  • They are goal oriented
  • They are practical and problem-solvers
  • They have accumulated life experiences.
  • (Source: http://claweb.cla.unipd.it/home/cwhigham/cam_hy_whig/andragogy.htm )
implications of andragogy for instruction
Implications of Andragogy for Instruction
  • Learners should know why they are studying something.
  • Instruction should be task-oriented, and it should take into account the wide range of different backgrounds of learners.
  • Learners should be able to relate what is being studied to their personal/professional experiences.
  • Learners should be motivated and ready to learn.
  • Learners should be involved in the planning and evaluation of their instruction.
  • Instruction should be problem-centered rather than content-oriented.
  • (Source: http://claweb.cla.unipd.it/home/cwhigham/cam_hy_whig/andragogy.htm )
applying the principles of andragogy
Applying the Principles of Andragogy
  • Learner-centered classes will stimulate dialogue and knowledge construction.
  • Learners will benefit from a scaffolding approach to learning where the teacher provides more support in the early stages of the course .
  • Teachers should see themselves as facilitators and co-learners.
  • Teachers should recognize that learners are individuals with different life experiences and learning preferences. Some adult learners will still prefer the traditional pedagogical approach to teaching and learning.
  • Teachers should gradually try to push learners away from their comfort zone in the direction of a deeper approach to learning. (Source: http://claweb.cla.unipd.it/home/cwhigham/cam_hy_whig/andragogy.htm )
practical tips
Practical Tips

Ten Practical Tips for Teachers

of Adult Learners

Adults prefer instructors who:

1. Are content experts 6. Consider learner interests

2. Provide relevance 7. Individualize instruction

3. Are well organized 8. Use active learning

4. Don’t waste time 9. Encourage self-directed learning

5. Provide clear learning goals 10. Are supportive and non-threatening

(Source: http://www.dit.ie/DIT/lifelong/adult/adlearn_strategies.pdf )

discussion question activity 2
Discussion Question/Activity #2
  • Describe one new activity you could add to one of your courses that is consistent with adult learning theory.
topic 2
Topic 2

Lecture vs. Facilitation

  • "It is in fact nothing short of a miracle that the modern methods of instruction have not yet entirely strangled the holy curiosity of inquiry. . . . It is a very grave mistake to think that the enjoyment of seeing and searching can be promoted by means of coercion and a sense of duty."
  • - - - - - Albert Einstein
lecture sage on the stage
Lecture: “Sage on the Stage”
  • At the root of the lecture model lies the notion that knowledge resides in the head of the teacher, and the student learns this knowledge by listening to the teacher.

(Source: http://www.elearnspace.org)

characteristics of effective ineffective lectures
Characteristics of Effective/Ineffective Lectures

Source: http://www.reproline.jhu.edu/English/6read/6training/lecture/delivering_lecture.htm

lecture components
Lecture Components

Silberman (1990) suggests five approaches to maximizing students’ understanding and retention during lectures. These can be used to help ensure the effective transfer of knowledge.

Use an opening summary. At the beginning of the lecture, present major points and conclusions to help students organize their listening. 

Present key terms. Reduce the major points in the lecture to key words that act as verbal subheadings or memory aids. 

Offer examples. When possible, provide real-life illustrations of the ideas in the lecture. 

Use analogies. If possible, make a comparison between the content of the lecture and knowledge the students already have. 

Use visual backups. Use a variety of media to enable students to see as well as hear what is being said.

Source: http://www.reproline.jhu.edu/English/6read/6training/lecture/delivering_lecture.htm

lecture or not to lecture
Lecture or Not to Lecture?

Source: http://www.reproline.jhu.edu/English/6read/6training/lecture/delivering_lecture.htm

discussion question activity 3
Discussion Question/Activity #3
  • How much do you rely on lecture as an instructional strategy? How do you determine whether or not to use this strategy?
facilitation guide on the side
Facilitation: “Guide on the Side”
  • Learners learn best when given control of the experience, under the guidance and direction of a skilled instructor.

(Source: http://www.elearnspace.org)

what is facilitation
What is Facilitation?
  • Facilitation is the process of enabling groups to work cooperatively and effectively

(http://www.infodesign.com.au/usability/facilitation.html)

what is a facilitator s job
What is a facilitator’s job?

“Quite simply, a facilitator\'s

job is to make it easier for

the group to do its work.

By providing non-directive

leadership, the facilitator

helps the group arrive at

the decisions that are its

task. The role is one of

assistance and guidance,

not control.”

(Source: Ward-Green and Hill Associates at: http://www.wghill.com/facilitate.htm)

some guidelines for effective facilitation
Some Guidelines for Effective Facilitation
  • 1. Address students’ current mode of thinking and learning in class:
  • Many students believe they are supposed to:
  • to have the right answers;
  • to meet explicit or implicit expectations of authority figures;
  • not to ask questions or share information;
  • not to experiment or to make mistakes; and/or
  • not to challenge the status quo.
  • These types of student fears/misconceptions need to be addressed directly and honestly by the instructor. Students must be made to feel that your classroom is a “safe” place to explore new learning.

Source: http://www.cdtl.nus.edu.sg/link/Mar2002/tm4.htm

some guidelines for effective facilitation31
Some Guidelines for Effective Facilitation
  • 2. Manage class dynamics
  • As a facilitator, a faculty member will have to balance the following sets of opposing factors that influence how a class should be conducted:
  • Structure: How rigidly or flexibly should the lesson be run? Pacing: How rapidly or leisurely should the group be pushed to achieve learning?
  • Group Interaction: How do group members relate to the facilitator and to each other?
  • Focus: Which is more important to impart, all course content as planned or the process of learning?
  • Concern: Should energy be directed at individual or group needs?
  • Control: To what extent are students empowered to perform in class?

Source: http://www.cdtl.nus.edu.sg/link/Mar2002/tm4.htm

some guidelines for effective facilitation32
Some Guidelines for Effective Facilitation

3. Establish core values

The teacher-as-facilitator should have a set of core values to guide his/her actions (Argyris & Schon, 1974). These core values will prevent the facilitator from behaving defensively when strong differences in views erupt in class or when students conduct themselves in an unacceptable manner.

Source: http://www.cdtl.nus.edu.sg/link/Mar2002/tm4.htm

some guidelines for effective facilitation33
Some Guidelines for Effective Facilitation
  • 4. Communicate
  • It is paramount for a facilitator to listen to not only what is said, but also what is not said during a discussion. The facilitator has to
  • Be alert and spot when and how individual students within the class express confusion or strong feelings.
  • Practice empathy so as to quickly respond to any doubts or questions students may have.
  • To encourage dialogue in class, both students and the faculty member have to suspend their own assumptions and show respect for each other in class: individual pride and ego must make way for a sincere interest in learning from one another.

Source: http://www.cdtl.nus.edu.sg/link/Mar2002/tm4.htm

some guidelines for effective facilitation34
Some Guidelines for Effective Facilitation

5. Sculpt students’ thinking

For effective facilitation, facilitator’s probing or questioning skills, and the ability to integrate or summarize various viewpoints is important. In this manner, different viewpoints can be generated and presented, and all in the class can achieve a fuller understanding of what is taught or learned.

The aim of ‘sculpting’ is not to impose one’s view on the students, but to help them mould their new understanding of the concepts learned to their existing body of knowledge and views (if any).

Source: http://www.cdtl.nus.edu.sg/link/Mar2002/tm4.htm

characteristics of effective facilitators
Characteristics of Effective Facilitators
  • Effective facilitation does not happen overnight. It requires commitment and practice on the part of
  • the instructor or trainer. Aker (1976) studied effective facilitators in detail and believed they were
  • individuals who exhibited the following characteristics:
  • Have great empathy--i.e., try to see things as seen by their learners.
  • Consistently use reward, seldom if ever use punishment, and never ridicule.
  • Have a deep sense of their responsibility, enjoy their work, and like people.
  • Feel secure in their own abilities, yet believe that they can do better.
  • Have a profound respect for the dignity and worth of each individual and accept their fellow learners as they are without reservation.
  • Have a keen sense of fairness and objectivity in relating to others.
  • Are willing to accept or try out new things and ideas and avoid drawing premature conclusions.
  • Have high levels of patience.
  • Recognize the uniqueness and strengths of each individual and build upon such strengths.
  • Are sensitive to the needs, fears, problems and goals of their fellow learners.
  • Reflect on their experiences and attempt to analyze them in terms of success and failure.
  • Are humble in regard to their role and avoid the use of power which is assumed by some educators.
  • Do not pretend to have the answers and enjoy learning along with others.
  • Are continuously expanding their range of interest.
  • Are committed to and involved in their own lifelong learning (p. 3).

Source: http://home.twcny.rr.com/hiemstra/tlchap5.html

discussion question activity 4
Discussion Question/Activity #4
  • List some core values you might establish in your classroom for facilitated exercises.
topic 3
Topic 3

Blended-Learning Approaches

what is blended learning
What is Blended Learning?

Blended learning is the combination of multiple approaches to teaching or to educational processes which involve the deployment of a diversity of methods and resources or to learning experiences which are derived from more than one kind of information source.

Examples include combining technology-based materials and traditional print materials, group and individual study, structured pace study and self-paced study, tutorial and coaching.

Source: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blended-learning

why use blended learning
Why Use Blended Learning?
  • Helps to accommodate different learning styles
  • Expands learning beyond the classroom
  • Gives students additional ownership in the learning process
  • Creates a community of learning
web based options for face to face classes
Web-based Options for Face-to-Face Classes

Option 1: Asynchronous Discussion Boards in Blackboard:

  • Reinforces material covered in class and asks student to use higher-level thinking skills in answering questions.
  • Is a relatively low pressure strategy allowing students to carefully ponder assigned questions and prepare a thoughtful response before posting.
  • The exchange of ideas, including your insights, quickly creates an energy that can fuel your class and help create a sense of community among your learners.
web based options for face to face classes41
Web-based Options for Face-to-Face Classes

Option 2: Synchronous Chats in Blackboard:

  • More active participants in your class will embrace this method.
  • Real-time exchange of ideas is not only exciting, but also teaches the participants to assimilate information quickly and to communicate their points more succinctly.
  • Managing a synchronous chat experience requires the instructor to know and enforce some basic guidelines.
web based options for face to face classes42
Web-based Options for Face-to-Face Classes

Option 3: Web-based Research Assignments

  • The Internet is a powerful and free resource that has relevance to every conceivable content domain.
  • Encouraging some guided discovery learning using sites identified by the instructor as a starting point (e.g. Webquests, situated learning sites, etc).
  • Allow student to explore resources of their choosing, but provide guidelines for citation and validation of sources.
web based options for face to face classes43
Web-based Options for Face-to-Face Classes

Option 4: Online learning weeks

  • Skip a few face-to-face sessions during the semester and instead require students to complete classwork online.
  • Include assignments that require students to engage in different kinds of activities. For instance, you might ask your students to complete a Web-based research project, and then join a small group of their classmates for a synchronous chat session followed by an asynchronous discussion posting to share their conclusions.
  • When you see your students again in the classroom, you can lead a lively discussion about their distance learning experience in addition to what they learned in new content.
web based options for face to face classes44
Web-based Options for Face-to-Face Classes

Option 5: Distance-based collaborative projects for small groups

  • Assign students into small groups and ask them to work collaboratively at a distance. Successful online collaboration will foster discipline and responsibility.
  • Ask your students to use the tools at their disposal to socially negotiate a method for completing the collaborative assignment with their peers, and then execute it.
  • Have each group present their results including the method they used to work together.
discussion question activity 5
Discussion Question/Activity #5
  • Have you used any of these online components? If yes, what were the results. If no, which appeal to you (if any)? Why?
topic 4
Topic 4

Giving students ownership in

the learning process

It is not what you teach, but what they learn, that matters.

student ownership in learning
Student Ownership in Learning

Current educational research says puts increasing responsibility on the student for truly meaningful learning to occur. Promoting student ownership in the learning process is consistent with constructivist approaches to learning and adult learning theory.

Some strategies to do this are:

  • Learning Contracts
  • Social negotiation of assignments and/or evaluation criteria
  • Collaborative work
  • Presentations
strategy 1 learning contracts
Strategy 1: Learning Contracts

ATHERTON J S (2003) Learning and Teaching:  Learning Contracts [On-line] UK: Available:http://146.227.1.20/~jamesa//teaching/learning_contracts.htm

strategy 2 social negotiation of criteria
Strategy 2: Social Negotiation of Criteria

One very effective way to promote student ownership is to give them input over the evaluation process for assignments. For instance, you might conduct an activity to create a rubric for a class project.

Why should students create their own rubrics?

“Reading or listening to a teacher\'s expectations is very different for a student than creating and accomplishing his or her own goals. The purpose of inviting students to develop their own evaluation structure is to improve their motivation, interest, and performance in the project. As students\' overall participation in school increases, they are likely to excel in it.”

(Source: http://www.teachervision.fen.com/teaching-methods/rubrics/4586.html?detoured=1)

strategy 2 social negotiation of criteria51
Strategy 2: Social Negotiation of Criteria
  • Once students are involved in project-based learning:
  • Students are motivated intrinsically to design their own assessment tool
  • Once students have invested a significant amount of time, effort, and energy into a project, they naturally want to participate in deciding how it will be evaluated.
  • The knowledge gained through experience in a particular field of study provides the foundation for creating a useful rubric.
  • (Source: http://www.teachervision.fen.com/teaching-methods/rubrics/4586.html?detoured=1)
strategy 2 social negotiation of criteria52
Strategy 2: Social Negotiation of Criteria

Example Rubric: Bridge Building Project

In this case, the class was divided into teams. Each group decided on their own "Company Name" as well as who would fill the following department head positions: project director, architect, carpenter, transportation chief, and accountant. All students were required to help out in every department. Each group received $1.5 million (hypothetically) to purchase land and supplies.

Students were asked to think about what parts of the design, construction, budget, and building journal were the most significant to the overall bridge quality. The class came up with four different rubrics

(Source: http://www.teachervision.fen.com/teaching-methods/rubrics/4586.html?detoured=1)

strategy 2 social negotiation of criteria53
Strategy 2: Social Negotiation of Criteria

The budget rubric is provided as an example:

(Source: http://www.teachervision.fen.com/teaching-methods/rubrics/4586.html?detoured=1)

strategy 3 collaborative work
Strategy 3: Collaborative Work

What is collaboration and why should students do it?

  • Collaboration is the social process that supports learners\' development of capabilities in which they learn to do without assistance things that they could initially do only with assistance.
  • By collaborating, students can develop their potential for learning. Specifically, students can learn to approach and solve new problems so that they develop the capability to solve problems that do not exist at the moment of learning.

Source: http://www2.gsu.edu/~wwwltc/howto/enablestudentcollab.htm

strategy 3 collaborative work55
Strategy 3: Collaborative Work

What is required for students to collaborate?

To collaborate, students need:

  • The task, e.g., a problem or project, the completion of which requires conceptual change in students
  • A group of students with problem-solving or project-developing capabilities distributed among them
  • Meaningful assistance for needed capabilities not distributed among group members
  • Time to interact with each other
  • Guidance for developing group processes and assessing their progress

Source: http://www2.gsu.edu/~wwwltc/howto/enablestudentcollab.htm

strategy 3 collaborative work56
Strategy 3: Collaborative Work

How do I get students to collaborate?

To entice students to collaborate, it is helpful to:

  • Shift course situations and reward structures to encourage students to view interactions with peers as indispensable learning resources.
  • Assign tasks that are suitable for collaboration, i.e., tasks that require the integration rather than just the accumulation of ideas.
  • Make the collaborative aspects of a course sufficiently large that students cannot safely ignore them.
  • Stage the first collaborative activities in ways that build swift trust among group members so they can get to work on the task to attain useful results quickly, which encourages subsequent collaboration.
  • Have student groups make the results of their collaboration visible to other student groups,

Source: http://www2.gsu.edu/~wwwltc/howto/enablestudentcollab.htm

strategy 4 portfolio based assessment
Strategy 4: Portfolio-based assessment

What is a portfolio?

A portfolio is a collection of work used as

proof, as evidence. It demonstrates:

“Look what I have done, look what I can

do, I have made these things, these are

my products.”

Source: NC Quest Program, UNCW at: http://uncw.edu/ed/ncquest

why create a portfolio
Why create a portfolio?
  • To provide a holistic perspective of your students learning journey
  • To document your students mastery of specific goals and objectives of the course through the selection and presentation of select pieces of “evidence” or “data.”
  • To serve as a tool for learning, to be built and reflected upon in a continuous manner as you proceed in your professional development.

Source: NC Quest Program, UNCW at: http://uncw.edu/ed/ncquest

implementing portfolios
Implementing Portfolios
  • Introduce the basic structure/requirements at the beginning of the semester
  • Encourage student input in negotiating some components
  • Provide recommendations and examples
  • Require a portfolio outline prior to assembling
what a portfolio is not
What a Portfolio is NOT

Keep in mind this is not a

scrapbook.

It should be a learning tool that

includes select pieces of

evidence, along with written

reflections that explain, for

example, why you chose each

artifact, in what course objectives

growth took place, what obstacles

you overcame, and what goals

you have for continued growth in

this particular area. As you

assess your own learning, there

should be a strong connection

that links your growth to overall

goals of the course.

Source: NC Quest Program, UNCW at: http://uncw.edu/ed/ncquest

discussion question activity 6
Discussion Question/Activity #6
  • What methods do you currently use to promote student ownership in the learning process?
topic 5
Topic 5

Accommodating different

learning styles

theory on learning styles
Theory on Learning Styles

There are many theories and models on

learning styles. Some theorists to explore are:

  • Gardner (Multiple Intelligences)
  • McCarthy (4MAT)
  • Dunn and Dunn (Cognitive Style Theory)
  • Shindler (Paragon Learning Style Inventory)
a few basic ideas
A Few Basic Ideas
  • No two learners learn in the identical way. 
  • An enriched environment for one learner is not necessarily enriched for another. 
  • No learner is all one learning style
  • The instructor’s learning style has an impact
some familiar styles
Some Familiar Styles
  • Auditory 
  • Visual
  • Tactual
  • Kinesthetic

(Source: http://www.geocities.com/~educationplace/4mod.html)

auditory learners
Auditory Learners
  • Find it easy to learn by listening 
  • Enjoy dialogues and discussion
  • Do well talking through problems
  • Are easily distracted by noise and other auditory inputs
  • Students who are NOT auditory learners often struggle during lectures to concentrate or understand what is being said by the instructor

(Source: http://www.geocities.com/CollegePark/Union/2106/aud.html)

strategies for auditory learners
Strategies for Auditory Learners
  • Incorporate audio tapes, Internet content including audio, and discussion activities along with lectures.
  • Tape record lectures and make them available for student use.
  • Encourage auditory learners to
    • use tape recorders to record lectures, and their own verbal notes.
    • join a study group.
    • Talk through solutions to technical/math content and record it in their own words.
visual learners
Visual Learners
  • Like to see demonstrations and written descriptions of concepts 
  • Often use lists to organize notes and recognize words by sight
  • Have active imaginations
  • Are easily distracted by movement or actionAre generally unaware of noise
  • Student who are NOT visual learners often read a page and realize they don’t know what they just read. They often have difficulty with reading assignments and overhead notes.

(Source: http://www.geocities.com/CollegePark/Union/2106/vis.html)

strategies for visual learners
Strategies for Visual Learners
  • Use diagrams, illustrations, Internet
  • Use tables and charts with color coding to present text-based information
  • Encourage visual learners to re-write notes, color codes with highlighters, create study aides containing key information from text books and classroom assignments.
tactual learners
Tactual Learners
  • Like to take notes during a lecture or when reading 
  • Often draw or doodle to remember things
  • Do well with hands-on projects (demonstraton, labs, etc.)
  • Students who are NOT tactual learners generally do not take notes, and struggle to keep up during hands-on exercises.

(Source: http://www.geocities.com/CollegePark/Union/2106/tac.html)

strategies for tactual learners
Strategies for Tactual Learners
  • Use hands-on activities (labs, models, writing assignments)
  • Incorporate assignments using computers
  • Encourage tactual learners to:
    • create flashcards
    • Devise symbols or icons to help classify information
kinesthetic learners
Kinesthetic Learners
  • Do well when they are involved or active in the learning activity 
  • Have high energy levels
  • Often don’t retain information presented during lecture
  • Don’t do as well when asked to sit and read
  • Students who are NOT kinesthetic learners prefer to sit and watch rather than get involved in activities.

(Source: http://www.geocities.com/CollegePark/Union/2106/kin.html)

strategies for kinesthetic learners
Strategies for Kinesthetic Learners
  • Create large diagrams wall or floor
  • Huge floor/wall puzzles
  • Large Maps on wall or floor
  • Team-based activities using chart paper posted on wall to score
  • Overheads projected on wall so students can move to them for games.
  • Acting
  • Interviewing
  • Peer coaching
  • Skits
  • Role Playing

(Source: http://www.geocities.com/CollegePark/Union/2106/kinact.html)

plan for different learning styles
Plan for Different Learning Styles
  • Every class represents the spectrum of different learning styles.
  • Incorporate this consideration into your instructional design process (e.g. Include activities relevant for all four styles when developing lesson plans)
  • Assess the possible bias of your own learning style when planning instructional approaches.
  • Encourage students to learn more about their own learning style.
  • Allow students to have input in creating/revising/choosing course activities.
discussion question activity 7
Discussion Question/Activity #7
  • What is the biggest obstacle you face in attempting to address multiple learning styles in the classroom?
topic 6
Topic 6

Reflective Activity

reflective activity
Reflective Activity

A variety of activities can be used to facilitate student reflection.

  • Student journals
  • Student presentations (portfolios)
  • Interviews
  • Asynchronous threaded discussions
  • Classroom discussions
reflective activity78
Reflective Activity

What does reflect activity do to stimulate learning?

  • Challenges students to make connections between experiences and concepts
  • Encourages students to contemplate the process in addition to the content
  • Makes the student the determiner of learning
  • Improves critical thinking and writing skills.
reflective activity79
Reflective Activity

Examples of reflective questions:

  • Discuss the key differences between the roles of online instructor and face-to-face instructor. What aspects of effective online teaching do you feel pose the biggest challenge for you given your own personal style and attributes as a teacher?
  • Discuss your own personal experience with online learning to date. This can include participation as learner and/or instructor. What were the strengths and weaknesses of the online learning you participated in? Highlight specific aspects that were particularly effective or ineffective. What do you think is the biggest obstacle to success in an online learning environment?
  • Consider your own characteristics as an adult learner. What are some strategies that could be used in an online course to maximize the value of the experience for you? What strategies might frustrate you? Discuss any modifications to your own behavior that you might need to make in order to become an effective distance learner
questions and comments
Questions and Comments

The floor is yours!

resources
Resources
  • Facilitation: A Different Pedagogy?; CDTLink at:http://www.cdtl.nus.edu.sg/link/Mar2002/tm4.htm
  • Pedicases at:http://www.pedicases.org/home.phtml
  • Learning Styles at: http://www.geocities.com/~educationplace/ls.html
  • Life Tips: Homework Tips, at: http://homework.lifetips.com/cat/59411/different-learning-styles/index.html
  • Explorations in Learning and Instruction: Theory Into Practice (TIP) Database at: http://tip.psychology.org/
  • Learning and Teaching Website, James Atherton at:http://www.learningandteaching.info/
  • CDT Link at:http://www.cdtl.nus.edu.sg/link/default.htm
  • Teachervision.com at:http://www.teachervision.fen.com/tv/
  • Center for Teaching and Learning Website at Georgia State University. Available at:http://www2.gsu.edu/~wwwctl/
  • Instructional Design Knowledge Base at George Mason University at:http://classweb.gmu.edu/ndabbagh/Resources/IDKB/index.htm
resources continued
Resources, continued.
  • UMUC-Verizon Virtual Resource Site for Teaching with Technology:http://www.umuc.edu/virtualteaching/vt_home.html
  • Web Teacher at:http://www.webteacher.org/windows.html
  • Concept to Classroom at:http://www.thirteen.org/edonline/concept2class/index.html
  • Multimedia Cases (Situated Learning), Mable Kinzie UVA at: http://kinzie.edschool.virginia.edu/id.html
  • Moodle (freeware course management system) at:http://moodle.com/?moodlead=moodle.org
  • Big Dog’s ISD page at:http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/hrd/sat.html#intro
  • Yahoo Web Beginner’s Guides at:http://dir.yahoo.com/Computers_and_Internet/Internet/World_Wide_Web/Beginner_s_Guides
  • Distance Education Clearinghouse at:http://www.uwex.edu/disted/home.html
  • University of Hawaii, Faculty Development Teaching Tips Index at:http://honolulu.hawaii.edu/intranet/committees/FacDevCom/guidebk/teachtip/teachtip.htm#assessment
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References

ATHERTON J S (2003) Learning and Teaching:  Learning Contracts [On-line] UK: Available:http://146.227.1.20/~jamesa//teaching/learning_contracts.htmAccessed: 1 April 2006

Blended-learning, Wikipedia at: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blended-learning

Institute of Learning, University of Hull at: http://claweb.cla.unipd.it/home/cwhigham/cam_hy_whig/andragogy.htm

Kelly, Diana K., Teaching Strategies for Adult Learners, Dublin Institute of Technology, at:http://www.dit.ie/DIT/lifelong/adult/adlearn_strategies.pdf

Life Tips: Homework Tips, at: http://homework.lifetips.com/cat/59411/different-learning-styles/index.htmlRetrieved April 2, 2006.

NC Quest Program Website, University of North Carolina at Wilmington at: http://www.uncw.edu/ed/ncquest/

Student Generated Rubrics, Pearson Education Network, teachervision.com at:http://www.teachervision.fen.com/teaching-methods/rubrics/4586.html?detoured=1Retrieved April 2, 2006.

Sullivan, Richards; McIntosh, Noel. ReproLine, The Reading Room at: http://www.reproline.jhu.edu/English/6read/6training/lecture/delivering_lecture.htmRetrieved April 1, 2006.

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References

TLTC Website, Center for Teaching and Learning, Georgia State University: Enabling student collaboaration at: http://www2.gsu.edu/~wwwltc/howto/enablestudentcollab.htmRetrieved April 3, 2006.

Ward-Green and Hill Associates at: http://www.wghill.com/facilitate.htm. Retrieved March 31, 2006.

What is Constructivism, funderstanding.com at: http://www.funderstanding.com/constructivism.cfm

Wilson, Cynthia, Learning Styles Website at:http://www.geocities.com/~educationplace/4mod.htmlRetrieved April 1, 2006.

Yoong, Shu Moo. Facilitation: A different pedagogy?. Centre for Development of Teaching and Learning, CDTLink. March 2002, 6:1 at: http://www.cdtl.nus.edu.sg/link/Mar2002/tm4.htm

Zolar, M. (2004) Constructivism 101. NC Quest Program, University of North Carolina at Wilmington.)

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