by alexis avila nilanka lord
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Kingdom Archaebacteria

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By Alexis Avila & Nilanka Lord. Kingdom Archaebacteria. Archaebacteria are not f ully u nderstood!. Relatively new discovery so we don’t know too much about them Classification is very difficult Originally classified under Kingdom Monera with the rest of the bacteria

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archaebacteria are not f ully u nderstood
Archaebacteria are not fully understood!
  • Relatively new discovery so we don’t know too much about them
  • Classification is very difficult
  • Originally classified under Kingdom Monera with the rest of the bacteria
  • Studies showed that 50% of their genes did not resemble those of other bacteria
characteristics of archaebacteria
Characteristics of Archaebacteria
  • Can only live in areas without oxygen
  • Extremophillic (thrive under extreme conditions)
  • Prokaryotic (very similar to bacteria)
    • Single-celled
    • No nucleus
    • No membrane bound organelles
    • Navigate using one or more flagella
size and shape of archaebacteria
Size and Shape of Archaebacteria
  • Volume is about one-thousandth that of eukaryotes
  • Can be cocci, bacilli, or spirilla in shape
parts of archaebacteria
Parts of Archaebacteria
  • Cell wall that lackspeptidoglycan
  • Phospholipidbilayer
    • Composed of glycerol-ether lipids, unlike bacteria
  • One or more flagella
  • Reproduce asexually via binary fission (prokaryotic)
    • Binary fission: when a single DNA molecule replicates and two identical cells are created from original cell
ecological significance
Ecological Significance
  • World\'s most prolific methane producers
  • Play a big role in digestion in many organisms
  • Some are found in the gut of humans and assist in digestion
  • Forms symbiotic relationships with:
        • Giant tube worms (Riftiapachyptila)
        • Termites
        • Herbivores (like cows and horses)
  • Suspected to play a role in periodontal disease, but not proven
modes of nutrition
Modes of Nutrition
  • Archaebacteria have 4 ways of getting food:
    • Photoautotrophic- Calvin Cycle (light energy + CO2)
    • Chemoautotrophic- reverse Krebs cycle (inorganic chemicals + CO2)
    • Photoheterotrophic- use light + organic chemicals to make food
    • Chemoheterotrophic- undergo respiration, either Krebs, TCA, or Citric Acid cycle, and then ETC (organic chemicals + CO2)
  • Thermotaxis(movement toward extreme temperatures)
  • Evolution of thermotaxis due to lack of competition for survival
groups of archaebacteria
Groups of Archaebacteria


(Love HEAT & ACID)




(Love SALT)

characteristics of methanogens
Characteristics of Methanogens
  • Found in oxygen-free environments
  • Produce methane gas from HO2 & CO2
  • Can live and produce in conditions other bacteria can’t survive in
  • Most are coccoid or rod-like in shape (few exhibit a plate-like shape)

Cluster of coccoidmethanogens

methanobrevibacter ruminantium
  • Found in the guts of rumen (like cows)
  • Turn H2into CH4 (methane)
  • Cows release this methane into the atmosphere
  • Scientists looking for a way to limit their production of methane

characteristics of halophiles
Characteristics of Halophiles
  • Require salt-rich environments to survive (due to high internal salt concentration)
  • Like plants, they use sunlight as a source of photosynthetic energy
  • Get their color and chemical energy from bacteriorhodopsin (a light-sensitive pigment)
  • Most are rod-shaped (bacilli)
halobacterium halobium
  • Prevalent bacteria in the Great Salt Lake
  • Can survive in salt concentrations 10x saltier than that of the oceans

owens lake bed sierra nevada california
Owens Lake Bed (Sierra Nevada, California)

characteristics of thermoacidophiles
Characteristics of Thermoacidophiles
  • Can live and thrive in extremely hot,sulferic, and/or acidic environments
  • Include:
      • Thermophiles= thrive in extremely high temperatures
      • Acidophiles= pH tolerant (function at 1-5 pH)
      • Sulfolobus= thrive in sulfur-rich environments
desulfonauticus submarinus
  • Live in giant, deep-sea tube worms called Riftiapachyptila
  • Share a symbiotic relationship with the tube worms
  • Make food and energy for the tube worms via chemosynthesis

sulfolobus solfataricus
  • Found in sulfur-rich, acidic environments
  • Grows optimally at 80⁰C
  • Capable of living in extremely acidic circumstances (1-5 pH)

1 all of the following are examples of substances found in bacteria or archaea except
1) All of the following are examples of substances found in bacteria or archaea EXCEPT:
  • peptidoglycan
  • flagellin
  • bacteriorhodopsin
  • chitin
  • phycobilins
2) Which of the following contains prokaryote organisms capable of surviving extreme conditions of heat and salt concentration?
  • archaea
  • viruses
  • protists
  • fungi
  • plants
  • Archaebacteria
  • Methanogens
  • Halophiles
  • Thermoacidophiles