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By Alexis Avila & Nilanka Lord. Kingdom Archaebacteria. Archaebacteria are not f ully u nderstood!. Relatively new discovery so we don’t know too much about them Classification is very difficult Originally classified under Kingdom Monera with the rest of the bacteria

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archaebacteria are not f ully u nderstood
Archaebacteria are not fully understood!
  • Relatively new discovery so we don’t know too much about them
  • Classification is very difficult
  • Originally classified under Kingdom Monera with the rest of the bacteria
  • Studies showed that 50% of their genes did not resemble those of other bacteria
characteristics of archaebacteria
Characteristics of Archaebacteria
  • Can only live in areas without oxygen
  • Extremophillic (thrive under extreme conditions)
  • Prokaryotic (very similar to bacteria)
    • Single-celled
    • No nucleus
    • No membrane bound organelles
    • Navigate using one or more flagella
size and shape of archaebacteria
Size and Shape of Archaebacteria
  • Volume is about one-thousandth that of eukaryotes
  • Can be cocci, bacilli, or spirilla in shape
parts of archaebacteria
Parts of Archaebacteria
  • Cell wall that lackspeptidoglycan
  • Phospholipidbilayer
    • Composed of glycerol-ether lipids, unlike bacteria
  • One or more flagella
reproduction
Reproduction
  • Reproduce asexually via binary fission (prokaryotic)
    • Binary fission: when a single DNA molecule replicates and two identical cells are created from original cell
ecological significance
Ecological Significance
  • World\'s most prolific methane producers
  • Play a big role in digestion in many organisms
  • Some are found in the gut of humans and assist in digestion
  • Forms symbiotic relationships with:
        • Giant tube worms (Riftiapachyptila)
        • Termites
        • Herbivores (like cows and horses)
  • Suspected to play a role in periodontal disease, but not proven
modes of nutrition
Modes of Nutrition
  • Archaebacteria have 4 ways of getting food:
    • Photoautotrophic- Calvin Cycle (light energy + CO2)
    • Chemoautotrophic- reverse Krebs cycle (inorganic chemicals + CO2)
    • Photoheterotrophic- use light + organic chemicals to make food
    • Chemoheterotrophic- undergo respiration, either Krebs, TCA, or Citric Acid cycle, and then ETC (organic chemicals + CO2)
uniqueness
Uniqueness
  • Thermotaxis(movement toward extreme temperatures)
  • Evolution of thermotaxis due to lack of competition for survival
groups of archaebacteria
Groups of Archaebacteria

Thermoacidophiles

(Love HEAT & ACID)

Methanogens

(Make METHANE)

Halophiles

(Love SALT)

characteristics of methanogens
Characteristics of Methanogens
  • Found in oxygen-free environments
  • Produce methane gas from HO2 & CO2
  • Can live and produce in conditions other bacteria can’t survive in
  • Most are coccoid or rod-like in shape (few exhibit a plate-like shape)

Cluster of coccoidmethanogens

http://faculty.college-prep.org/~bernie/sciproject/project/Kingdoms/Bacteria3/methanogens.htm

methanobrevibacter ruminantium
Methanobrevibacterruminantium
  • Found in the guts of rumen (like cows)
  • Turn H2into CH4 (methane)
  • Cows release this methane into the atmosphere
  • Scientists looking for a way to limit their production of methane

http://202.114.65.51/fzjx/wsw/newindex/tuku/MYPER/a2/750.htm

characteristics of halophiles
Characteristics of Halophiles
  • Require salt-rich environments to survive (due to high internal salt concentration)
  • Like plants, they use sunlight as a source of photosynthetic energy
  • Get their color and chemical energy from bacteriorhodopsin (a light-sensitive pigment)
  • Most are rod-shaped (bacilli)
halobacterium halobium
Halobacteriumhalobium
  • Prevalent bacteria in the Great Salt Lake
  • Can survive in salt concentrations 10x saltier than that of the oceans

http://domescobar.blogspot.com/2011/11/oito-criaturas-da-terra-que-poderiam.html

owens lake bed sierra nevada california
Owens Lake Bed (Sierra Nevada, California)

http://school.nettrekker.com/goExternal?np=/external.ftl&pp=/error.ftl&evlCode=255279&productName=school&HOMEPAGE=H

characteristics of thermoacidophiles
Characteristics of Thermoacidophiles
  • Can live and thrive in extremely hot,sulferic, and/or acidic environments
  • Include:
      • Thermophiles= thrive in extremely high temperatures
      • Acidophiles= pH tolerant (function at 1-5 pH)
      • Sulfolobus= thrive in sulfur-rich environments
desulfonauticus submarinus
Desulfonauticussubmarinus
  • Live in giant, deep-sea tube worms called Riftiapachyptila
  • Share a symbiotic relationship with the tube worms
  • Make food and energy for the tube worms via chemosynthesis

http://bioweb.uwlax.edu/bio203/s2007/rossing_jaco/images/tubeworms.jpgGOVwww.nsf.gov.jpg

sulfolobus solfataricus
Sulfolobussolfataricus
  • Found in sulfur-rich, acidic environments
  • Grows optimally at 80⁰C
  • Capable of living in extremely acidic circumstances (1-5 pH)

http://www.sulfosys.com/tl_files/sulfosys/sulfolobus/Zelle.jpg

1 all of the following are examples of substances found in bacteria or archaea except
1) All of the following are examples of substances found in bacteria or archaea EXCEPT:
  • peptidoglycan
  • flagellin
  • bacteriorhodopsin
  • chitin
  • phycobilins
slide24
2) Which of the following contains prokaryote organisms capable of surviving extreme conditions of heat and salt concentration?
  • archaea
  • viruses
  • protists
  • fungi
  • plants
sources
Sources
  • Archaebacteria
    • http://ic.galegroup.com/ic/scic/ReferenceDetailsPage/ReferenceDetailsWindow?displayGroupName=Reference&disableHighlighting=false&prodId=SCIC&action=e&windowstate=normal&catId=&documentId=GALE%7CCV2644030155&mode=view
    • http://plantphys.info/organismal/lechtml/archaea.shtml
    • http://www.nature.com/ismej/journal/v1/n1/full/ismej20078a.html
    • http://school.nettrekker.com/goExternal?np=/external.ftl&pp=/error.ftl&evlCode=240911&productName=school&HOMEPAGE=H
    • http://www.pnas.org/content/101/16/6176.long
  • Methanogens
    • http://faculty.college-prep.org/~bernie/sciproject/project/Kingdoms/Bacteria3/methanogens.htm
    • http://www.angelfire.com/ks3/lditton/archaebacteria.html
    • http://www.enotes.com/science/q-and-a/methanogens-halophiles-thermoacidophiles-3-groups-156123
    • http://www.hindawi.com/journals/arch/2010/945785/
  • Halophiles
    • http://waynesword.palomar.edu/plsept98.htm
    • http://mmbr.asm.org/content/62/2/504.full
  • Thermoacidophiles
    • http://go.galegroup.com/ps/retrieve.do?sgHitCountType=None&sort=DA-SORT&inPS=true&prodId=GPS&userGroupName=lcpsh&tabID=T003&searchId=R1&resultListType=RESULT_LIST&contentSegment=&searchType=BasicSearchForm&currentPosition=2&contentSet=GALE%7CA168664452&&docId=GALE|A168664452&docType=GALE&role=ITOF
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