By alexis avila nilanka lord
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By Alexis Avila & Nilanka Lord. Kingdom Archaebacteria. Archaebacteria are not f ully u nderstood!. Relatively new discovery so we don’t know too much about them Classification is very difficult Originally classified under Kingdom Monera with the rest of the bacteria

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Kingdom Archaebacteria

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By Alexis Avila & Nilanka Lord

Kingdom Archaebacteria


Archaebacteria are not fully understood!

  • Relatively new discovery so we don’t know too much about them

  • Classification is very difficult

  • Originally classified under Kingdom Monera with the rest of the bacteria

  • Studies showed that 50% of their genes did not resemble those of other bacteria


Characteristics of Archaebacteria

  • Can only live in areas without oxygen

  • Extremophillic (thrive under extreme conditions)

  • Prokaryotic (very similar to bacteria)

    • Single-celled

    • No nucleus

    • No membrane bound organelles

    • Navigate using one or more flagella


Size and Shape of Archaebacteria

  • Volume is about one-thousandth that of eukaryotes

  • Can be cocci, bacilli, or spirilla in shape


Parts of Archaebacteria

  • Cell wall that lackspeptidoglycan

  • Phospholipidbilayer

    • Composed of glycerol-ether lipids, unlike bacteria

  • One or more flagella


Reproduction

  • Reproduce asexually via binary fission (prokaryotic)

    • Binary fission: when a single DNA molecule replicates and two identical cells are created from original cell


Ecological Significance

  • World's most prolific methane producers

  • Play a big role in digestion in many organisms

  • Some are found in the gut of humans and assist in digestion

  • Forms symbiotic relationships with:

    • Giant tube worms (Riftiapachyptila)

    • Termites

    • Herbivores (like cows and horses)

  • Suspected to play a role in periodontal disease, but not proven


  • Modes of Nutrition

    • Archaebacteria have 4 ways of getting food:

      • Photoautotrophic- Calvin Cycle (light energy + CO2)

      • Chemoautotrophic- reverse Krebs cycle (inorganic chemicals + CO2)

      • Photoheterotrophic- use light + organic chemicals to make food

      • Chemoheterotrophic- undergo respiration, either Krebs, TCA, or Citric Acid cycle, and then ETC (organic chemicals + CO2)


    Uniqueness

    • Thermotaxis(movement toward extreme temperatures)

    • Evolution of thermotaxis due to lack of competition for survival


    Groups of Archaebacteria

    Thermoacidophiles

    (Love HEAT & ACID)

    Methanogens

    (Make METHANE)

    Halophiles

    (Love SALT)


    Methanogens


    Characteristics of Methanogens

    • Found in oxygen-free environments

    • Produce methane gas from HO2 & CO2

    • Can live and produce in conditions other bacteria can’t survive in

    • Most are coccoid or rod-like in shape (few exhibit a plate-like shape)

    Cluster of coccoidmethanogens

    http://faculty.college-prep.org/~bernie/sciproject/project/Kingdoms/Bacteria3/methanogens.htm


    Methanobrevibacterruminantium

    • Found in the guts of rumen (like cows)

    • Turn H2into CH4 (methane)

    • Cows release this methane into the atmosphere

    • Scientists looking for a way to limit their production of methane

    http://202.114.65.51/fzjx/wsw/newindex/tuku/MYPER/a2/750.htm


    Halophiles


    Characteristics of Halophiles

    • Require salt-rich environments to survive (due to high internal salt concentration)

    • Like plants, they use sunlight as a source of photosynthetic energy

    • Get their color and chemical energy from bacteriorhodopsin (a light-sensitive pigment)

    • Most are rod-shaped (bacilli)


    Halobacteriumhalobium

    • Prevalent bacteria in the Great Salt Lake

    • Can survive in salt concentrations 10x saltier than that of the oceans

    http://domescobar.blogspot.com/2011/11/oito-criaturas-da-terra-que-poderiam.html


    Owens Lake Bed (Sierra Nevada, California)

    http://school.nettrekker.com/goExternal?np=/external.ftl&pp=/error.ftl&evlCode=255279&productName=school&HOMEPAGE=H


    Thermoacidophiles


    Characteristics of Thermoacidophiles

    • Can live and thrive in extremely hot,sulferic, and/or acidic environments

    • Include:

      • Thermophiles= thrive in extremely high temperatures

      • Acidophiles= pH tolerant (function at 1-5 pH)

      • Sulfolobus= thrive in sulfur-rich environments


    Desulfonauticussubmarinus

    • Live in giant, deep-sea tube worms called Riftiapachyptila

    • Share a symbiotic relationship with the tube worms

    • Make food and energy for the tube worms via chemosynthesis

    http://bioweb.uwlax.edu/bio203/s2007/rossing_jaco/images/tubeworms.jpgGOVwww.nsf.gov.jpg


    Sulfolobussolfataricus

    • Found in sulfur-rich, acidic environments

    • Grows optimally at 80⁰C

    • Capable of living in extremely acidic circumstances (1-5 pH)

    http://www.sulfosys.com/tl_files/sulfosys/sulfolobus/Zelle.jpg


    AP QUESTIONS!


    1) All of the following are examples of substances found in bacteria or archaea EXCEPT:

    • peptidoglycan

    • flagellin

    • bacteriorhodopsin

    • chitin

    • phycobilins


    2) Which of the following contains prokaryote organisms capable of surviving extreme conditions of heat and salt concentration?

    • archaea

    • viruses

    • protists

    • fungi

    • plants


    Sources

    • Archaebacteria

      • http://ic.galegroup.com/ic/scic/ReferenceDetailsPage/ReferenceDetailsWindow?displayGroupName=Reference&disableHighlighting=false&prodId=SCIC&action=e&windowstate=normal&catId=&documentId=GALE%7CCV2644030155&mode=view

      • http://plantphys.info/organismal/lechtml/archaea.shtml

      • http://www.nature.com/ismej/journal/v1/n1/full/ismej20078a.html

      • http://school.nettrekker.com/goExternal?np=/external.ftl&pp=/error.ftl&evlCode=240911&productName=school&HOMEPAGE=H

      • http://www.pnas.org/content/101/16/6176.long

    • Methanogens

      • http://faculty.college-prep.org/~bernie/sciproject/project/Kingdoms/Bacteria3/methanogens.htm

      • http://www.angelfire.com/ks3/lditton/archaebacteria.html

      • http://www.enotes.com/science/q-and-a/methanogens-halophiles-thermoacidophiles-3-groups-156123

      • http://www.hindawi.com/journals/arch/2010/945785/

    • Halophiles

      • http://waynesword.palomar.edu/plsept98.htm

      • http://mmbr.asm.org/content/62/2/504.full

    • Thermoacidophiles

      • http://go.galegroup.com/ps/retrieve.do?sgHitCountType=None&sort=DA-SORT&inPS=true&prodId=GPS&userGroupName=lcpsh&tabID=T003&searchId=R1&resultListType=RESULT_LIST&contentSegment=&searchType=BasicSearchForm&currentPosition=2&contentSet=GALE%7CA168664452&&docId=GALE|A168664452&docType=GALE&role=ITOF


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