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By Alexis Avila & Nilanka Lord. Kingdom Archaebacteria. Archaebacteria are not f ully u nderstood!. Relatively new discovery so we don’t know too much about them Classification is very difficult Originally classified under Kingdom Monera with the rest of the bacteria

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Kingdom Archaebacteria

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By alexis avila nilanka lord

By Alexis Avila & Nilanka Lord

Kingdom Archaebacteria

Archaebacteria are not f ully u nderstood

Archaebacteria are not fully understood!

  • Relatively new discovery so we don’t know too much about them

  • Classification is very difficult

  • Originally classified under Kingdom Monera with the rest of the bacteria

  • Studies showed that 50% of their genes did not resemble those of other bacteria

Characteristics of archaebacteria

Characteristics of Archaebacteria

  • Can only live in areas without oxygen

  • Extremophillic (thrive under extreme conditions)

  • Prokaryotic (very similar to bacteria)

    • Single-celled

    • No nucleus

    • No membrane bound organelles

    • Navigate using one or more flagella

Size and shape of archaebacteria

Size and Shape of Archaebacteria

  • Volume is about one-thousandth that of eukaryotes

  • Can be cocci, bacilli, or spirilla in shape

Parts of archaebacteria

Parts of Archaebacteria

  • Cell wall that lackspeptidoglycan

  • Phospholipidbilayer

    • Composed of glycerol-ether lipids, unlike bacteria

  • One or more flagella



  • Reproduce asexually via binary fission (prokaryotic)

    • Binary fission: when a single DNA molecule replicates and two identical cells are created from original cell

Ecological significance

Ecological Significance

  • World's most prolific methane producers

  • Play a big role in digestion in many organisms

  • Some are found in the gut of humans and assist in digestion

  • Forms symbiotic relationships with:

    • Giant tube worms (Riftiapachyptila)

    • Termites

    • Herbivores (like cows and horses)

  • Suspected to play a role in periodontal disease, but not proven

  • Modes of nutrition

    Modes of Nutrition

    • Archaebacteria have 4 ways of getting food:

      • Photoautotrophic- Calvin Cycle (light energy + CO2)

      • Chemoautotrophic- reverse Krebs cycle (inorganic chemicals + CO2)

      • Photoheterotrophic- use light + organic chemicals to make food

      • Chemoheterotrophic- undergo respiration, either Krebs, TCA, or Citric Acid cycle, and then ETC (organic chemicals + CO2)



    • Thermotaxis(movement toward extreme temperatures)

    • Evolution of thermotaxis due to lack of competition for survival

    Groups of archaebacteria

    Groups of Archaebacteria


    (Love HEAT & ACID)


    (Make METHANE)


    (Love SALT)



    Characteristics of methanogens

    Characteristics of Methanogens

    • Found in oxygen-free environments

    • Produce methane gas from HO2 & CO2

    • Can live and produce in conditions other bacteria can’t survive in

    • Most are coccoid or rod-like in shape (few exhibit a plate-like shape)

    Cluster of coccoidmethanogens

    Methanobrevibacter ruminantium


    • Found in the guts of rumen (like cows)

    • Turn H2into CH4 (methane)

    • Cows release this methane into the atmosphere

    • Scientists looking for a way to limit their production of methane



    Characteristics of halophiles

    Characteristics of Halophiles

    • Require salt-rich environments to survive (due to high internal salt concentration)

    • Like plants, they use sunlight as a source of photosynthetic energy

    • Get their color and chemical energy from bacteriorhodopsin (a light-sensitive pigment)

    • Most are rod-shaped (bacilli)

    Halobacterium halobium


    • Prevalent bacteria in the Great Salt Lake

    • Can survive in salt concentrations 10x saltier than that of the oceans

    Owens lake bed sierra nevada california

    Owens Lake Bed (Sierra Nevada, California)



    Characteristics of thermoacidophiles

    Characteristics of Thermoacidophiles

    • Can live and thrive in extremely hot,sulferic, and/or acidic environments

    • Include:

      • Thermophiles= thrive in extremely high temperatures

      • Acidophiles= pH tolerant (function at 1-5 pH)

      • Sulfolobus= thrive in sulfur-rich environments

    Desulfonauticus submarinus


    • Live in giant, deep-sea tube worms called Riftiapachyptila

    • Share a symbiotic relationship with the tube worms

    • Make food and energy for the tube worms via chemosynthesis

    Sulfolobus solfataricus


    • Found in sulfur-rich, acidic environments

    • Grows optimally at 80⁰C

    • Capable of living in extremely acidic circumstances (1-5 pH)

    Ap questions


    1 all of the following are examples of substances found in bacteria or archaea except

    1) All of the following are examples of substances found in bacteria or archaea EXCEPT:

    • peptidoglycan

    • flagellin

    • bacteriorhodopsin

    • chitin

    • phycobilins

    Kingdom archaebacteria

    2) Which of the following contains prokaryote organisms capable of surviving extreme conditions of heat and salt concentration?

    • archaea

    • viruses

    • protists

    • fungi

    • plants



    • Archaebacteria






    • Methanogens





    • Halophiles



    • Thermoacidophiles


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