What is gender?. Traditionally, gender has been used primarily to refer to the grammatical categories of "masculine," "feminine," and "neuter," but in recent years the word has become well established in its use to refer to sex-based categories, as in phrases such as gender gap and the politics of
Cao Anh Tuan (Cao)
Chanthavong Vornthalom (Vorn)
Chen Guannan (GiGi)
Luu Vi Cuong (Kern)
Wang Yuchin (Chantal)
2. What is gender? Traditionally, gender has been used primarily to refer to the grammatical categories of "masculine," "feminine," and "neuter," but in recent years the word has become well established in its use to refer to sex-based categories, as in phrases such as gender gap and the politics of gender. This usage is supported by the practice of many anthropologists, who reserve sex for reference to biological categories, while using gender to refer to social or cultural categories.
3. Roles of Gender in different areas in Laos
4. Roles of Gender in Politics Historically, only males have been elected for top leader positions;
Only very few women have been involved in politics;
Minister is the highest position that Lao female can achieve so far;
Lao Women Union is well in place and 8th March is observed as a public holiday for all women in Laos.
5. 2. Roles of Gender in Socio-economy Total population: 6.2 million (2005)
Literacy rate of female: 30% less than male
Female labor force: 2.8 Million (2005)
80% of labor force: Agriculture Sector
Women hold dual responsibility:
6. 2. Roles of Gender in Socio-economy (Con.) • In rice farming:
Men: Land preparation
Women have a substantial role:
Actively involved in manage small livestock production;
Marketing of agricultural products;
Contribute actively to household income through weaving, petty trade, wage labor and bamboo work.
Women's contribution as family labor is undervalued and was never included in national accounting as work
7. 3. Roles of Gender in Tradition Men:
Responsible for only physical demanding job;
Expected to pay for the costs associated with wedding including dowry & men are supposed to move to live in the female’s house and not to return home before 3 days;
Expected to cook;
Look after children;
Served their husband.
8. 4. Roles of Gender in Religion For Buddhist in Laos, religious leaders are only males;
Females who devote themselves for religion and live in the temples for years or most of their lives can only play supporting role to the religion;
Females are not supposed to have eye contact with monks nor physically get too closed to the monks.
9. Vietnam Perception on the role of Women, by some extent, are differentiated by 2 main dimensions:
Rural and urban
Old and young (born before & after 1980s)
Rural and old
Mostly affected by Chinese feudal ideology: being housewives with 3 compliances towards father, husband and son.
Serve and backup for men in the family.
Urban and young
Partially influenced by the Western culture: striving equality with men while maintaining housewives’ duties.
Successful women are the on who can balance between family and social work.
10. Vietnam Literacy rate:
90% of adult males vs 79% of adult females.
12% of girls more than 5 years old never attend school compared with the 7.5% of boy.
40% of pregnancies are terminated, the highest rate in the world.
Women accounting for 42% of state employees.
Women working the same time but receive 14% less than men per month.
80% of land-use certificates are registered in name of a household male head.
Sourced: Asian Development Bank, 2002.
11. Perceptions on Sex Traditional ideology:
Sex is private and should be hidden deeply inside.
No talking about sex. Women thinking about sex are evil.
Parents never talk about sex with their children.
BUT: AIDS coming with great growth
STI is increasing
Sex education was brought into school since 1990s.
People feel freer to talk about sex and see the need of educating their children about safe sex.
Safe sex appears more and more in public mass media.
12. Sex industry It is illegal and forbidden in Vietnam:
No sex toy shops
No XXX movies or magazines, no show girl bars
Firewall to block XXX website on the Internet
Everybody has responsibility to preserve the national “beautiful and bright tradition and custom”
? Prostitutes are ruining themselves but more important they are destroying the national tradition.
They are arrested and sent to re-education center to regain their ethics.
However, 2/3 of urban male have their first sexual experiences in a hotel!! (Sources: www.vnexpress.net)
13. Cross Gender
14. Definition Transgendered
1. Appearing as or having undergone surgery to become a member of the opposite sex.
2. Of or relating to a transgendered person or transgendered people.
15. Where? All in the mind
Men twice as big as women (no guys no link to intelligence level)
Men who have been operated, their hypothalamus are as a woman’s.
16. Transgender in DK More men want to be women (London, Berlin,New York & Copenhagen)
Homoners pills purchase over internet
Two groups older people with children and young people/teenagers
DK 5-10 transgender-oprations
350 have undergone T-operation whereas 100 outside DK
17. Transgender operation 20 undergo operation yearly.
Increase demand for operations
18. Juristically problem Case Sarah M. Richards vs. Secretary of state for work and pension.
Court of justice of the European Communities.
19. Gay & Lesbian in China The forming reasons of the preference:
1. Innate factor
2. Non-innate factor —— the hurt of heart due to the unpleased experience of sentiment
20. Shemale or Boygirl The forming reasons of the preference:
1. Innate factor —— hate the role as a female or male
2. Non-innate factor —— the unfair treat owing to the role
21. Sex Industry Sex industry develops rapidly because of the more and more open era and also bring some economy effect, such as:
2.Medicine & hospital industry
22. Homosexual In Taiwan Why it develop in Taiwan?
- Geographic location
What the Civil law regulate?
- Homosexual marriage in Taiwan
23. Homosexual In Taiwan (con) Milestone in Taiwan
Movie Director-Ang Lee
- a movie that describe the relationship between two homosexual
24. Sexual tendency
- an tragic true story
- Successful working women
25. VIETNAM Who dare to be “different”? Hardly find lesbians but more and more gays
Disclosed gays who’s wearing clothes or make up like women and want to be treated like women.
Hidden gays who are exactly the same like normal men and hiding their actual sexual orientation.
It is disease which need to be treated
It is a shame and even compared with evil
New opinions recently:
More sympathy or regret
But still keeping a big distance
26. VIETNAM Who dare to be “different”? Xuan Dieu - One of the best Vietnamese modern poet whose could easily burn a girl’s heart with his poems was finally found out to be gay.
Bui Anh Tan – One writer in national police force won 1st prize in Vietnam literature competition in 2002 with his famous novel “The world without a woman” which based on the true story of his investigation. The novel then was transcripted into a series of movies shown on national TV channels.
27. Definition Cosplay Costume & play
Manga, Anime, Tokusatsu and video games
Forum & fairs
28. Rikku and Yuna Final Fantasy X-2
29. Vincent Valentine FFVII Advent Children
30. Gay Pride Flag
31. Timeline 1948 The first homosexual union in Scandinavian founded in Ålborg, "Forbundet af 1948", Known today as "Landsforeningen for Bøsser og Lesbiske".
1949 First publication from the union ”Vennen”. It pointed out the male prostitution in Copenhagen, which leaded to a hunt against gay, ending with the bill "den Grimme Lov" in 1961.
1951 Copenhagen police form a special corps to take care of homosexual cases.
1961 Danish parliament passed the bill "den Grimme Lov", which discriminated customers in a prostitution relationship for men having sex with men under 21 years. The police used this bill to intensified the hunt against gays.
1965 The bill "den Grimme Lov” removes.
32. Timeline 1967 Same punishment for prostitution for hetero- and homosexual.
1976 Same minimum age for hetero- and homosexual.
1986 Danish parliament agree on inheritance tax for cohabiting homosexual couples.
1987 Danish parliament changed the civil code, prohibit different treatment and discrimination of sexual orientation.
1989 First country in the world to allow homosexual marriages.
1996 Bill prohibit different treatment on workplace.
1997 Danish parliament passed a bill which prohibit lesbian and single women to insemination.
33. Rainbow Family May 2006, lesbian women are allowed to be inseminated.
It is legal in DK that homosexual couples to have children.
Homosexual couples cannot adopt on equal term as heterosexual couples.
34. Top Gays George Takei
35. Top Lesbian Sappho from Lesbos
Portia di Rossi
37. Sources http://politiken.dk/udland/article199701.ece