Focus on connecticut science and technology in society
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Focus on Connecticut: Science and Technology in Society. Science, Technology, and Quality of Life. Science and technology are systems of problem solving Science is a way we learn about any physical object Technology is a way we then use that object to meet a need or solve a problem.

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Focus on Connecticut: Science and Technology in Society

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Focus on Connecticut: Science and Technology in Society


Science, Technology, and Quality of Life

  • Science and technology are systems of problem solving

  • Science is a way we learn about any physical object

  • Technology is a way we then use that object to meet a need or solve a problem.


Septic Systems

  • A septic system is a technology for disposing of sewage and treating wastewater.

  • Wastewater – water that has been used and , as a result, it becomes wastewater (dishwater)

  • Sewage - is wastewater containing human wastes

  • Wastewater, whether from the sink , shower, washing machine or toilet must be treated before it is safe to return to the environment.


  • Many buildings use a septic system to dispose of sewage and treat wastewater.

  • Sewer line – a separate pipe takes the water from the building to the septic tank.

  • Septic Tank – an underground container for sewage and wastewater, which uses bacteria to break down or decompose the wastes into simpler chemicals that are less harmful to the environment.

  • Sludge – consisting of the heavier waste particles, settles at the bottom of the tank.


  • The sludge must be pumped out regularly along with the scum that floats on the top of the tank.

  • The treated wastewater filters out of the tank into the ground through a distribution system.

  • Distribution system – a perforated pipe inside a trench that holds treated water until it ca safely seep into the ground.

  • Leach field – area around the septic tank that the water flows into.

  • Any remaining wastes gradually breakdown in leach field soil.


Sewage Treatment Plants

  • Clean wastewater for entire communities.

  • 4 main steps

  • Preliminary treatment consist of screens that catch large particles of food and trash as the wastewater flows through.

  • Primary Treatment – consists of settling tanks. As in septic tanks, gravity pulls particles to the bottom, forming sludge.


  • Secondary Treatment – the wastewater is filtered through a bed of gravel covered with bacteria, which, as in the septic tank, breakdown the wastes into simpler chemicals.

  • The water is then pumped into pools for air and sunlight to help purify it.

  • If necessary, chlorine is added to make sure any remaining harmful microorganisms are dead.


  • Water pollution is a major issue in CT.

  • Water pollution – addition of any substance that has a negative effect on water or the living things that depend on water.

  • Three main sources: humans, human wastes, industrial wastes, and chemical runoff.

  • In order to control pollution, governments, industries, and individuals must all work together.


Food Production & Preservation

  • Food poisoning – an illness caused by contaminated food resulting in fever, diarrhea, cramps – and in very rare cases, death.

  • Bacteria can produce a toxin, or a poison, that causes illness.

  • Food Preservation Technology – making sure food is safe to eat.

  • Microbe-killing technologies include dehydration, pickling, irradiation, and temperature control.

  • The key to preventing food poisoning is to control the number of bacteria in food, prevent growth of bacteria, destroy as many existing bacteria as possible, and avoid recontamination.


Bridges

  • The four main forces acting on a bridge are tension, compression, shear, and torsion.

  • Tension – the force stretches a material

  • Compression – the force squeezes or shortens the material.

  • Shear – the force tends to make a material slide.

  • Torsion- the force tends to make a material twist.


  • The bridges own weight is called dead load.

  • Its traffic is called live load.

  • Bridge Materials – A bridge has so many forces acting on it that the materials chosen must be strong – but they must also be light enough for the bridge foundation to support.

  • Three most common types of Bridges are beam, arch, and suspension.


Beam Bridge

  • The simplest with a span supported at each end.

  • The load is carried by supports.

  • Most highway bridges.


Truss Bridges

  • Use a system of triangles that cross-brace each other for stability.

  • Best bridge to carry heaviest loads.


Arch Bridge

  • Load is carried at the ends of the arch.

  • Arch bridge has each part supported by the part that comes before it, like two staircases meeting in the middle.

  • Puts more stress on the two end supports than a beam bridge does, but it is less likely to deform in the middle.

  • Compression is main force at work.


Suspension Bridge

  • Most of the load is carried by cables anchored to the banks.

  • The cables are strung through towers, suspending a deck for traffic.

  • Compression pushes down on the deck, but the cables transfer the compression to the towers, which send the compression to the ground.

  • Best bridge to cover a long distance.


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