Census Data and Montana Indian Reservations

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Census Data and Montana Indian Reservations

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1. Census Data and Montana Indian Reservations Pam Harris Bureau Chief Census and Economic Information Center Montana Department of Commerce I’m just the opening act. Susan has all the good stuff. What I’ve been asked to do is give you an overview of not only what CEIC does, but how the data can be used to your benefit and what we all must do to ensure that analysis like this will be able to continue as the data for reservations gets better and better.I’m just the opening act. Susan has all the good stuff. What I’ve been asked to do is give you an overview of not only what CEIC does, but how the data can be used to your benefit and what we all must do to ensure that analysis like this will be able to continue as the data for reservations gets better and better.

2. CEIC – Who We Are Partnership with U.S. Dept. of Commerce, Census Bureau and Bureau of Economic Analysis to disseminate Montana data collected by federal agencies Cvs.C staff provide demographic and economic data and analysis, GIS support, technical assistance and training. Assist Montana businesses, communities schools, and all government agencies to access and use this information for decision-making. Long standing partnership began in the late 70s Long standing partnership began in the late 70s

3. Why Census Data? Census data is unique Only source for small area data (reservation, cities/towns, tribal census tracts, etc.) Only source which shows characteristics for the population such as age, race, gender, educational attainment, income, labor force, types of households, etc. Census results are used to distribute almost $200 billion annually in federal, state, local, and tribal funds

4. Examples of American Indian Federal Programs Relying on Census Data Workforce Investment Program Community Development Block Grants (CDBG) Supplemental Food Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) Temporary Assistance to Needy Families Low Income Energy Assistance Workforce Investment – labor force characteristics CDBG – Income data WIC – single mothers with children Temporary assistance – number and type of families in need Low Income Energy – housing basics or lack thereofWorkforce Investment – labor force characteristics CDBG – Income data WIC – single mothers with children Temporary assistance – number and type of families in need Low Income Energy – housing basics or lack thereof

5. How can data help? Census data helps tribal planners evaluate conditions on their reservations and in their communities. Tribal governments, states, cities, federal agencies, and businesses all need current information to make critical decisions. Data can help decide what services are needed and how to distribute funding for housing, economic development, health care, and other programs that benefit veterans, children, families, the elderly and the society as a whole. Census data is an important tool for tribal government decision-making and could result in improved utility services, new housing, job training, better school facilities, or a new health clinic to benefit you, your family, your community or reservation.

6. More current data coming.. American Community Survey (ACS) will replace the decennial census long form questionnaire producing the socio-economic data every year instead of every 10 years. Example – Workforce Investment Act of 1998 requires information about American Indian and Alaska Native households to support training and employment activities. ACS will provide this critically important information. ACS has been endorsed by the Indian and Native American Employment and Training Coalition and the National Congress of American Indians. Flathead and Lake Counties have been a successful part of the early ACS testing for the last six years. Note ACS brochure in handoutsNote ACS brochure in handouts

7. Census 2010 Pilot project in South Dakota, Cheyenne River Reservation An accurate and complete count of the population in 2010 will enable American Indians to receive the correct share of federal and state resources that are based on census data Pilot project is testing new counting methods; setting standard for how the Census Bureau counts American Indians all over the U.S. American Indians have been undercounted in previous censuses, and the mutual goal of the Census Bureau and the American Indian community is to reverse that trend in 2010. Not too soon to begin thinking about and preparing for the 2010 Census.Not too soon to begin thinking about and preparing for the 2010 Census.

8. Chart speaks for itselfChart speaks for itself

9. Summary Federal monies are getting harder to obtain. Data users need to be smarter about using the information available to help secure essential funding for tribal programs. Without accurate, reliable, and current information, detailed analysis of Indian Reservations’ Economies’ will be more difficult. Need to work together, take ownership of the data, to ensure that the American Community Survey and the 2010 Census are the best they can be, which will ultimately benefit everyone. We all know that the money pot is shrinking and it takes more effort to attract dollars to our communities. Part of that process is to make sure the data are available and that the data accurately reflect the area in which we live. Questions after Susan’s presentation is over. Now on to the fun stuff…We all know that the money pot is shrinking and it takes more effort to attract dollars to our communities. Part of that process is to make sure the data are available and that the data accurately reflect the area in which we live. Questions after Susan’s presentation is over. Now on to the fun stuff…

10. Analyzing Montana’s Indian Reservations’ Economies Susan Ockert Senior Research Economist, Census and Economic Information Center, Montana Department of Commerce

11. All data is from Census 2000. Census is self-reporting. For population, there is reservation population, which is what is reported here, tribal population, which is the population of the particular tribe, which is reported state wide and national, and just American Indian, which is not the same as enrolled member. Unemployment – this is Census data. BIA reports unemployment based on enrolled member while Department of Labor determines who’s in the labor force then determines who’s employed or unemployed. People who are not in the labor force includes full-time students,are retired and/or are disabled. All data is from Census 2000. Census is self-reporting. For population, there is reservation population, which is what is reported here, tribal population, which is the population of the particular tribe, which is reported state wide and national, and just American Indian, which is not the same as enrolled member. Unemployment – this is Census data. BIA reports unemployment based on enrolled member while Department of Labor determines who’s in the labor force then determines who’s employed or unemployed. People who are not in the labor force includes full-time students,are retired and/or are disabled.

12. Places are delineated to provide census data for concentrations of population, housing, and commercial structures that are identifiable by name but are not within an incorporated place. Place has boundaries usually are defined in cooperation with state, local, and tribal officials. These boundaries, which usually coincide with visible features or the boundary of an adjacent incorporated place or other legal entity boundary, have no legal status, nor do these places have officials elected to serve traditional municipal functions. For Census 2000, for the first time, places did not need to meet a minimum population threshold to qualify for tabulation of census data. Places are delineated to provide census data for concentrations of population, housing, and commercial structures that are identifiable by name but are not within an incorporated place. Place has boundaries usually are defined in cooperation with state, local, and tribal officials. These boundaries, which usually coincide with visible features or the boundary of an adjacent incorporated place or other legal entity boundary, have no legal status, nor do these places have officials elected to serve traditional municipal functions. For Census 2000, for the first time, places did not need to meet a minimum population threshold to qualify for tabulation of census data.

13. American Indian Population: Urban vs. Rural

14. What is an ‘economy’?

15. Current Reservation Environment Population Faster growth rate Younger median age Education Fewer with degrees Higher drop out rate Social Larger percent of population uses food stamps Higher pregnancy rate Higher alcohol treatment need

16. Current Reservation Economies Higher unemployment More poverty Lower per capita income Lower wages Lower housing values Smaller private sector

17. Types of Jobs 33% of jobs on the reservation are Government compared with 15% of jobs in the country as a whole 44% of jobs on the reservation are in the Private Sector compared with 80% of jobs in the nation

18. American Indian business owners only by state and not by reservation.American Indian business owners only by state and not by reservation.

19. Threshold Analysis Central Place Theory - Population needed to support retail and service businesses Simple Analysis: population and number of businesses Similar characteristics such as population & location Does not take into account economies of scale Square footage Number of doctors in one facility Grocery store Health care Financial Institutions

20. Grocery Stores

23. Implications Reservations are underserved in these private sectors Just Off the Reservation serving own population and reservation Trade Centers and Metropolitans serve a much larger region

24. Location Quotient Determine if number of jobs are what a local economy should have to serve local needs Comparison of local employment to statewide for each industry < 1 = underserved, > 1 = serving more than local MT Department of Labor and Industry, Research and Analysis has calculated LQ for each county in Montana (www.ourfactsyourfuture.mt.gov)

25. Fort Peck Reservation

27. Comparisons

28. Implications Money is leaving the reservations to purchase retail goods and consumer services There is not an adequate supply of financial services on the reservations There is not an adequate supply of doctors, clinics, etc. on the reservations

29. Diversity of Economy Hachman Index measures diversity of economy – employment spread out among many different industries compared to benchmark Montana or United States More diversity reduces community’s vulnerability to economic downturns Closer to 1 mean more diversity MT Department of Labor and Industry, Research and Analysis has calculated HI for each county in Montana (www.ourfactsyourfuture.mt.gov)

30. Hachman Index Fort Peck Reservation = .24 Blackfeet Reservation = .14 County Hachman Indices Lowest (Stillwater) = .01 Median = .25 (McCone, Phillips, Toole) Highest = .66 (Gallatin, Missoula, Cascade)

31. Implications Reservation and county economies are not diverse ‘One company’ towns

32. Vibrancy of Economy Remember to emphasize population is for ZIP CODE and not towns.Remember to emphasize population is for ZIP CODE and not towns.

33. Productivity – Measure of Efficiency

35. Reservation Natural Resources

37. Summary With legal and policy foundation and data collection: Reservations have potential to expand private business sectors Reservations have natural resources, especially for energy generation, to use as economic engines American Indian farmers appear to have comparative advantage in farming

38. Contact Information Susan Ockert Senior Research Economist (406) 821-2740 [email protected] www.ceic.mt.gov PowerPoint presentation available on CEIC’s web site at www.ceic.mt.gov/presentations.asp and MEDA’s web site at www.medamembers.org/memdir.php For questions, please call or email Susan or go to the website.For questions, please call or email Susan or go to the website.

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