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Please close your laptops

and turn off and put away your cell phones, and get out your note-taking materials.

Today’s daily homework quiz will be given during the last 10 minutes of the class session.

Please

CLOSE

YOUR LAPTOPS,

and turn off and put away your cell phones,

and get out your note-taking materials.

Section 6.5

Factoring Binomials

- ALWAYS look for a GCF first with any polynomial you are trying to factor.
- After that, count how many terms are in the polynomial. If there are
- FOUR terms: Use factoring by grouping.
- THREE terms ( a trinomial):
- If the leading coefficient is 1 (if it looks like x2 + bx + c),
- Find factors (x + t)(x + v) such that t + v = b and t*v = c.

- If the leading coefficient is not 1(if it looks like ax2+ bx + c),
- Use the British method, which starts with multiplying a*c, and then finding factors of that number that add up to b.

- If the leading coefficient is 1 (if it looks like x2 + bx + c),

Case one:

Binomials in which both terms are perfect squares.

Previously, we discovered a formula for finding the product of the sum and difference of two terms:

(a – b)(a + b) = a2 – b2

Today we are going to learn techniques for factoring two-term polynomials (binomials).

We can use the reverse of this equation to factor the difference of 2 squares.

a2 – b2 = (a – b)(a + b)

Examples:

a2 – b2 = (a – b)(a + b)

Factor x2 – 16.

Since this polynomial can be written as (x)2– (4)2,

x2 – 16 = (x – 4)(x + 4).

Factor 9x2 – 4.

Since this polynomial can be written as (3x)2 – (2)2,

9x2 – 4 = (3x – 2)(3x + 2).

Factor 16x2 – 9y2.

Since this polynomial can be written as (4x)2 – (3y)2,

16x2 – 9y2 = (4x – 3y)(4x + 3y).

Examples

a2 – b2 = (a – b)(a + b)

Factor x8 – y6.

Since this polynomial can be written as (x4)2 – (y3)2,

x8 – y6 = (x4 – y3)(x4 + y3).

Factor x2 + 4.

This one is the sum of two squares, not the difference of squares, so it can’t be factored. This polynomial is a prime polynomial.

a2 – b2 = (a – b)(a + b)

Example:

Factor 36x2 – 64.

Remember that you should always factor out any common factors first, before you start any other technique.

Step 1: Factor out the GCF, which in this case is 4.

36x2 – 64 = 4(9x2 – 16)

Step 2: Factor the polynomial 9x2 – 16

The polynomial can be written as (3x)2 – (4)2,

so (9x2 – 16) = (3x – 4)(3x + 4).

Our final result is 36x2 – 64 = 4(3x – 4)(3x + 4).

↑

(Don’t forget to write in 4 (the GCF)

as part of your final answer!)

Example from the online homework:

Note that 4096 is a HUGE NUMBER. But if it is a square, then we’re

in business.

How do you tell if it’s a perfect square? Take the square root

(You can do this with your on-line calculator.)

Answer: 4096 = 642. So s4 – 4096 = (s2)2 – 642 = (s2 – 64)(s2 + 64)

Are we done yet?

No, because s2 – 64 factors further into (s + 8)(s – 8)

Final answer: (s + 8)(s – 8)(s2 + 64)

- There are two additional types of binomials that can be factored easily by remembering a formula.
- We have not studied these special products previously, as they involve cubes of terms, rather than just squares.
a3 + b3 = (a + b)(a2 – ab + b2)

a3 – b3 = (a – b)(a2 + ab + b2)

[You can prove that these formulas work by multiplying out the two factors on the right side of each equation. If you do this, you’ll get six products at the first stage, but you’ll find that everything cancels out except the a3 and b3 terms.]

NOTE: These formulas are on the formula sheet that you can use on each test and quiz, so you don’t have to memorize them, but you do need to know how to apply them.)

Examples

- Formulas:
- Sum of cubes: a3 +b3 = (a+b)(a2–ab + b2)
- Diff. of cubes: a3–b3 = (a–b)(a2+ab + b2)

HINT: It will help you a lot when doing cube problems if you always start by writing blank parentheses, then figure out what goes in them. Those will be the “a” and “b” in your formula.

- Factor x3 + 1.
HINT: This one looks like ( )3+ ( )3.

Since this polynomial can be written as (x)3 + (1)3,

we can use the sum of cubes formula, with a = x and b = 1

Answer: x3 + 1 =(x + 1)(x2 – x + 1).

2. Factor y3 – 64.

HINT: This one looks like ( )3-( )3. What goes in the parentheses?

Therefore we can use the difference of cubes formula with a = y and b = 4.

Answer: y3 – 64 =(y – 4)(y2 + 4y + 16).

y

4

Examples:

- a3 + b3 = (a + b)(a2 – ab + b2)
- a3 – b3 = (a – b)(a2 + ab + b2)

3. Factor 8t3 + s6.

HINT: This one looks like ( )3+( )3. What goes in the parentheses?

This polynomial can be written as (2t)3 + (s2)3, so

8t3 + s6 = (2t + s2)((2t)2 – (2t)(s2) + (s2)2)

= (2t + s2)(4t2 – 2s2t + s4).

4. Factor x3y6 – 27z3.

HINT: This one looks like ( )3- ( )3. What goes in the parentheses?

This polynomial can be written as (xy2)3 – (3z)3, so

x3y6 – 27z3 = (xy2 – 3z)((xy2)2 + (3z)(xy2) + (3z)2)

= (xy2 – 3z)(x2y4 + 3xy2z + 9z2).

Example

Remember to ALWAYS check to see if you can factor out any common factors before attempting to use any other factoring techniques or formulas.

Factor 375y6 – 24y3.

Step 1: Factor out the GCF.

(Tip: Since 375 is such a big number, start by factoring the smaller number 24, then see if any of its factors will divide into 375. You will find that the number 3 is a divisor of both 24 and 375.)

375y6 – 24y3 = 3y3(125y3 – 8)

Since the second part can be written as(5y)3 – 23,

125y3 – 8 = (5y – 2)((5y)2 + (5y)(2) + 22)

= (5y – 2)(25y2 + 10y + 4).

Final answer: 3y3(5y – 2)(25y2 + 10y + 4).

You may now OPEN

your LAPTOPS

and begin working on the homework assignment until it’s time to take the quiz on HW 6.3/4.

The assignment on this material (HW 6.5)

Is due at the start of the next class session.

You will have access to the online calculator on your laptop during this quiz. No other calculator may be used.

Please open Quiz 6.3/4.You have 10 minutes for this quiz.

You may use the pink formula sheet on this quiz – please don’t write on this sheet, and remember to hand it back in with your quiz answer sheet.

- IMPORTANT NOTE: If you have time left after you finish the problems on this quiz, use it to check your answers before you submit the quiz!

- Remember to turn in your answer sheetto the TA when the quiz time is up.