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Chapter 1. Foundations of Communication . Noise. Signal. Received Signal. Linear Model Communication as Action. Transmitter. Receiver. Info Source. Channel. Destination. Who says what in what channel to whom with what effect?. Noise. Interaction Model Communication as Message Exchange.

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Chapter 1

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Chapter 1

Foundations of Communication


Noise

Signal

Received Signal

Linear ModelCommunication as Action

Transmitter

Receiver

Info Source

Channel

Destination

Who says what in what channel to whom with what effect?


Noise

Interaction ModelCommunication as Message Exchange

Context

Context

Source

Channel

Receiver

Message

Message

Context

Context

Feedback

Adds two key elements (feedback and context)…still fails to recognize simultaneous process of sending/receiving that occurs.


Noise

Noise

Noise

Transaction ModelCommunication as Message Creation

Context

Context

Source/Receiver

Source/Receiver

Message/Feedback

Context

Context

We constantly react to what others say…not just exchanging meaning, also creating meaning


8 Propositions about Interpersonal Communication

  • Communication has both verbal & nonverbal components

  • You cannot not communicate

  • Communication expresses both content & relationship

  • Meanings are in people


8 Propositions about Interpersonal Communication (continued)

  • Communication is irreversible

  • Communication is a neutral tool

  • Communication is a learned skill

  • Communication takes place in physical & psychological contexts


Source

Intentional

Unintentional

Intentional

1

2

Receiver

Unintentional

3

4


Chapter 2

So What’s Stopping You?

Communication Anxiety


Why are some people apprehensive about communicating?

  • Inadequate positive reinforcement

  • Poor skill development

  • Inadequate or poor models


Understanding Stage Fright

  • Fear of evaluation

  • Lack of preparation

  • Feel conspicuous

  • Rigid rules

  • Negative self-talk


Managing your Fear of Communicating

  • Think!

    Severe Communication Apprehension

  • Systematic desensitization

  • Cognitive therapy


Chapter 4

Listening


What is Listening?

  • Receiving

  • Understanding

  • Interpreting

  • Discriminating

  • Remembering

  • Evaluating

  • Responding


Who is the Listener?

  • Listener’s purposes

  • Listener’s knowledge & interest levels

  • Listener’s listening skills

  • Listener’s attitudes


Contextual Barriers to Good Listening

  • Location

  • Culture

  • Gender


Becoming a Better Listener

  • Adapt to speaker’s delivery

  • Listen with your eyes as well as your ears

  • Monitor your emotional reactions

  • Avoid jumping to conclusions

  • Listen for major ideas

  • Identify your listening goals

  • Take notes

  • Become an active listener

  • Be a selfish listener

    • What’s in it for me?

    • How can I use this information?


Chapter 3

Ethics & Professional Communication


Professional Communication Ethics

  • Take responsibility

  • Respect & tolerate others

  • Speak with commitment & will


Scholastic Dishonesty

  • Cheating

  • Plagiarism


Chapter 5

Interviewing for Information Gathering


What is an Informational Interview?

  • Exchange between two parties

  • Strategic purpose or goal

  • Asking & answering of questions


Preparing for an Interview

  • Decide on a purpose

  • Choose a structure

  • Generate topics

  • Construct a schedule of questions

    • Primary & secondary questions

    • Probes

  • Examine your questions for language problems

    • Ambiguous & complex phrasing

    • Irrelevant & offensive content

    • Leading questions

    • Speedy & guessing questions

  • Prepare your opening and closing


  • Chapter 6

    Working with Groups & Teams


    Teams…

    • When should you use a group or team?

    • Successful teams

      • Themes & identity

      • Enthusiasm and energy

      • Event-driven history

      • Personal commitment

      • Optimism

      • Performance results

      • Goals & roles (p. 180)


    Unsuccessful Teams

    • Unclear goals

    • Changing objectives that are poorly communicated

    • Poor leadership

    • Lack of mutual accountability

    • Having the wrong people on the team

    • Not prioritizing the team

    • Misunderstanding of roles

    • Too much unhealthy conflict

    • Bad process management (how team is organized & run)

    • No rewards for teamwork


    Leading Teams

    • Assigned vs. emergent leadership

    • Task vs. social leadership

    • Participative leadership

    • Democratic leadership

    • Laissez-faire leaders

    • Authoritative leaders


    Building Consensus

    • Share similar goals

    • Have a common enemy

    • Spend time together on both task and non-task activities

    • Work at respecting and trusting one another

    • Have a series of successful experiences together


    Downside of Consensus

    • Social loafing

    • Groupthink


    Effective Meetings

    • Keep the meeting structured

    • Build consensus

    • Understand the stages of meetings

      • Orientation

      • Conflict

      • Resolution

      • Reinforcement

  • Follow-through on commitments

  • Be a good team member


  • Chapter 7

    Leadership & Decision Making in Groups


    What is Leadership?

    Leadership: is a dynamic, interactive process whereby one person (or group) influences another person (or persons) to move toward a particular goal or objective.


    What is Leadership?

    • Process

    • Dynamic

    • Interactive

    • Influence

    • Purpose

      *Are leaders born or made?

      *Is leadership science or art?


    Perspectives on Leadership

    • Blake & Mouton’s leadership grid

      • Concern for people vs. concern for production

  • Transactional vs. transformational leadership

  • Situational leadership

    • Directing

    • Coaching

    • Supporting

    • Delegating

  • Contingency theory

    • Least-preferred coworker scale


  • Concern for People

    Concern for Production

    Blake & Mouton’s Leadership Grid

    1,9 Country Club

    9,9 Team

    5,5 Organizational

    9,1 Authority- Obedience

    1,1 Impoverished


    Follower Development Levels

    F1: Enthusiastic Beginner

    Low competence, high commitment

    F2: Disillusioned Learner

    Some competence, low commitment

    F3: Reluctant Contributor

    High competence, variable commitment

    F4: Peak Performer

    High competence, high commitment

    Situational Leadership Theory (Hersey & Blanchard)

    Leadership Styles

    L1: Telling/directing

    Low supportive, high directive

    L2: Selling/coaching

    High supportive, high directive

    L3: Participating/supporting

    High supportive, low directive

    L4: Delegating

    Low supportive, low directive


    Selling

    Follower Commitment

    Delegating

    Participating

    Follower Competence

    F1

    F4

    Telling

    F3

    Leadership Direction

    F2

    Leadership Support


    Contingency Leadership Theory (Fiedler)

    • Effective leadership is a balance of relationships, power, & task structure

    • Based on the Least-Preferred Co-worker Scale

      • Leader-Member Relations: extent of loyalty, support, and quality of relationships

      • Leader’s Position Power: extent to which leader has authority; controls rewards & punishments

      • Task Structure: extent to which tasks are standardized & controlled


    Contingency Leadership Theory


    Chapter 9

    Analyzing your Audience


    Know your Audience

    A – Analysis

    U – Understanding

    D – Demographics

    I – Interest

    E – Environment

    N – Needs

    C – Customized

    E – Expectations


    Audience Needs

    Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

    Self Actualization Needs

    Self-Esteem Needs

    Social Needs

    Safety Needs

    Physiological Needs


    Personality Types

    • Intuitors

      - Conceptual

    • Thinkers

      - Analytical

    • Feelers

      - Relational

    • Sensors

      - Practical


    Chapter 15

    Speaking to Inform


    Purpose of Informative Speaking

    • Convey understanding

    • Educate

    • Transmit information through personal channels


    Types of Informative Speeches

    • Objects

    • Processes

    • Events

    • Concepts


    Choosing a Topic

    • Not over listeners’ heads

    • Not too personal

    • Intriguing

    • Manageable

    • Has substance


    Types of Evidence

    • Narrative or objective

    • Factual

    • Specific

    • Statistics

    • Testimony


    Chapter 10

    Organizing a Successful Presentation


    Defining the Purpose of your Presentation

    Topic

    General Purpose

    Specific Purpose

    Thesis


    Organizing your Ideas

    • Chronological

    • Spatial

    • Topical

    • Problem-solution

    • Cause-effect


    Connecting your Ideas

    • Previews

    • Summaries

    • Transitions

    • Signposts


    Introduction

    • Attention grabber

    • Credibility

    • Thesis statement

    • Preview main ideas


    Conclusion

    • Intent to conclude

    • Summary of main ideas

    • No new information


    Chapter 14

    Delivering Public Presentations


    Verbal Delivery

    • Volume

    • Rate

    • Articulation

    • Inflection/tone

    • Rhythm

    • Flow


    Nonverbal Delivery

    • Eye contact

    • Hand gestures

    • Facial expressions

    • Posture

    • Clothing

    • Presence


    Delivery Styles

    • Memorized

    • Manuscript

    • Extemporaneous

    • Impromptu


    Chapter 8

    The Importance of Language


    What is Language?

    • Socially shared system

    • Arbitrary

    • Symbolic

    • Governed by rules

    • Combined


    Speech Act Theory

    Language is a functional tool…words mean because they do things


    Language & Reality

    Language reflects reality

    vs.

    Language creates reality


    Using Language Effectively

    • Appropriateness

    • Rhetorical sensitivity

    • Precision

    • Concise

    • Clear

    • Specific

    • Creativity

      - Metaphor- Simile - Repetition- Hyperbole


    Chapter 12

    Using Visual Aids


    Purpose of Visual Aids

    Visual representation of your ideas


    Objects

    Models

    People

    Drawings

    Photographs

    Maps

    Graphs

    Charts

    Video Tapes

    CD ROMs/DVDs

    Audio Tapes/CDs

    Types of Visual Aids


    Guidelines for Visual Aids

    • Visual aids enhance your presentation, not a substitute for your presentation

    • Easy to see / read / understand

    • Simple

    • Adapt to audience

    • Look professional


    More Guidelines…

    • Rehearse

    • Maintain eye contact

    • Explain the visual aid

    • Use handouts effectively

    • Prepare backups for technology failure

    • Timing…should coincide with ideas


    Chapter 13

    Making your Point with PowerPoint


    PowerPoint

    • Present information incrementally…allow audience to process

    • Simplicity (animation, slide design, etc.)

    • Consistency

      Narrating PowerPoint slides is not a speech!


    Chapter 16

    Speaking to Persuade


    Levels of Influence

    • Attitudes

    • Beliefs

    • Values

    • Behaviors

    The goal is change


    Important Distinctions

    • Attitude: learned predisposition to respond favorably or unfavorably toward something; a like/dislike; easiest to change

      Al Gore would have been a pretty good president

    • Belief: the degree of confidence with which something is perceived true or false

      The best way to stimulate the economy is to cut taxes

    • Value: an enduring conception of right/wrong, good/bad; most difficult to changeAbortion and the death penalty are both morally wrong


    Determining your Persuasive Purpose

    Persuasion happens when something is in question

    • Questions of fact

    • Questions of value

    • Questions of policy


    How do we Motivate Listeners?

    Classical Appeals

    • Logos – Appeals to audience reason

    • Pathos – Appeals to audience emotion

    • Ethos – Appeals to speaker character


    How do we Motivate Listeners?

    Positive motivation: statement made by a speaker suggesting that good things will happen if the speaker’s advice is heeded


    How do we Motivate Listeners?

    Negative Motivation(fear appeals)

    Research shows that…

    • Fear appeals involving loved ones are more effective than appeals involving the audience members themselves

    • The greater your credibility, the more likely your fear appeal will be successful

    • You must convince your audience that the threat is real and could actually happen


    Persuasive Strategies

    • Cognitive Dissonance (mental inconsistency)

      • Discredit the source

      • Reject or deny the inconsistency

      • Seek new information

      • Stop listening

      • Alter values, beliefs, attitudes, or behavior causing the dissonance

    Potential responses


    Persuasive Strategies

    • Monroe’s Motivated Sequence

      • Attention

      • Need

      • Satisfaction

      • Visualization

      • Action


    Persuasive Strategies

    • Implicit Intent

      Don’t be explicit with your intent to persuade (i.e., “Today I’m going to persuade you to…)

      - Introduction

      - Audience type


    Chapter 11

    Supporting your Claims (Evidence)


    Types of Evidence

    • Explanations

    • Comparisons

    • Divisions

    • Interpretations

    • Descriptions

    • Testimony


    Types of Evidence - Definitions

    • Etymological

    • Categorical

    • Oppositional

    • Denotative

    • Connotative


    Types of Evidence - Statistics

    • Descriptive

    • Inferential


    Types of Evidence - Examples

    • Hypothetical

    • Case study

    • Narrative

    • Personal experience


    Types of Evidence – Analogies

    • Literal

    • Figurative


    Types of Reasoning

    • Inductive: reaching a general conclusion based on specific examples, facts, statistics and opinions

    • Reasoning by Analogy: A comparison to explain how someone/something will respond

    • Deductive Reasoning: reaching a specific fact or opinion based on general information

    • Causal Reasoning: Relate two events saying that one caused the other


    Fallacies in Reasoning

    • Hasty generalization

    • Genetic fallacy

    • Appeal to ignorance

    • Bandwagon (popular appeal)

    • Appeal to false authority

    • Sequential fallacy

    • Begging the question

    • Ad hominen (personal attack)

    • Circular reasoning

    • Misuse of statistics

    • Either/or fallacy


    Chapter 17

    Professional Argumentation


    Argumentation Defined

    Argumentation: the mechanics of influence and the structure of reason


    4 Theories of Argument

    (1) Aristotle’s enthymeme - Partial syllogism

    - Omits the secondary premise


    4 Theories of Argument

    (2) Toulmin’s Components of Argument

    Warrant

    Evidence

    Claim

    Reservation


    4 Theories of Argument

    (3) Perelman’s Technique of Argument

    - Practical vs. formal reasoning

    - How to reason about values

    - Association

    - Dislocation


    4 Theories of Argument

    (4) Fisher’s Narrative Paradigm

    Narrative Rationality:

    - Coherence

    - Fidelity


    Chapter 18

    The Art of Impromptu Speaking


    Impromptu Speaking

    • Strong oral tradition

    • Importance in contemporary society

    • Neglected as a formal skill

    • Need training and practice


    Impromptu Topics

    • Subjects

    • Objects

    • Quotations


    Division of Structure

    • Classification

    • Unification

    • Cause-effect-solution


    Preparing for Impromptu Speaking

    Must be an on-going process

    • Read deliberately

    • Practice making associations

    • Breath support

    • Muscle relaxation

    • Fluency & pace


    Tips to Consider…

    • Consider your audience

    • Be brief

    • Organize your ideas

    • Speak honestly, but with reserve

    • Speak from personal knowledge & experience

    • Be cautious


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