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PRESIDENT: The Executive Branch. LESSON 9. Who can be the President of the United States?. Selecting a Candidate Requirements 35 years of age Native-born citizen of United States Resident for at least 14 years. How do we nominate candidates?. Traditional Nominating Procedure

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who can be the president of the united states
Who can be the President of the United States?
  • Selecting a Candidate
    • Requirements
      • 35 years of age
      • Native-born citizen of United States
      • Resident for at least 14 years
how do we nominate candidates
How do we nominate candidates?
  • Traditional Nominating Procedure
    • Caucus System
      • “KING CAUCUS”:Small group of party leaders selected candidates
      • Used until 1828
    • Nominating Convention
      • Used since 1828
      • Large groups of party members
      • More democratic
how do we nominate candidates1
How do we nominate candidates?
  • Nominating Procedures Today
    • State Conventions
      • Not used due to cost and time concerns
      • Worry that state party “bosses” would have considerable control over selecting nominees
how do we nominate candidates2
How do we nominate candidates?
  • Presidential Primaries & Caucuses
    • All states now use this procedure
    • Delegates chosen by primaries
    • Most democratic, but…
      • Low voter turnout
      • Expensive to run
how do we nominate candidates3
How do we nominate candidates?
  • National Conventions
    • Held summer before the election
    • “Political circus”
    • Purposes
      • Unite the party
      • Introduce the party platform
      • Nominate presidential and vice presidential candidates
how do candidates get their message out to the people
How do candidates get their message out to the people?
  • The Election Campaign
    • The candidate must appeal to the voters“go to the people”
      • Travel, dinners, speeches, TV, etc.
      • Campaigns cost millions of dollars
    • Campaign finance laws
      • 1972: People’s donations must be made public
      • 1974: Government will provide matching funds
why doesn t the popular vote end the election
Why doesn’t the popular vote end the election?
  • Electoral College System
    • Electoral votes =
    • People vote for “electors for…”
why doesn t the popular vote end the election1
Why doesn’t the popular vote end the election?
  • The winning candidate is the one that receives the majority (plurality) of the popular votes in a state; the winner of the state receives all of the state’s electoral votes.
  • A candidate needs 270electoral votes to win a Presidential election.

“WINNER-TAKE-ALL” SYSTEM

how does the electoral college affect presidential elections
How does the Electoral College affect Presidential elections?
  • Effects of the Electoral College System
    • Distorts the popular vote
      • 1980:Reagan v. Carter
      • 2000:Bush v. Gore
    • Candidate could lose small states overwhelmingly in popular vote, but carry large states by small margins
      • 1888:Cleveland v. Harrison
      • 2000:Bush v. Gore
how does the electoral college affect presidential elections1
How does the Electoral College affect Presidential elections?
  • Discourages minor parties  only Democrats and Republicans have legitimate chance to win
  • Affects the way candidates campaign  focus on large states with many electoral votes and ignore small states
when does the president elect actually start their new job
When does the President-elect actually start their new job?
  • Presidential Inauguration

January 20th (following Election Day)  formerly March 4th when travel was harder…

how long does the president serve
How long does the President serve?
  • Presidential Term of Office
    • PRECEDENT: Two-term tradition until 1940
    • 1940:Franklin Roosevelt (FDR) broke the two-term precedent  elected 4 times, but only served 3 full terms!
    • 1951:22nd Amendmentpassed after FDR’s death  limits President to 2 full terms or 10 years total

Who set the precedent?

GEORGE WASHINGTON: He refused to run for a third term in 1796…

if something happens to the president then
If something happens to the President, then…
  • Presidential Succession
    • Original Constitution:Vice President assumes the powers of the President for any reason (death, removal, resignation, etc.)
    • Presidential Succession Act (1947)
      • Vice President
      • Speaker of the House
      • President Pro Tempore (Senate)
      • Cabinet Members (starts with Secretary of State)
if something happens to the president then1
If something happens to the President, then…
  • 25th Amendment (1967)Presidential Disabilities and Succession Act
    • Vice Presidency vacant? President nominates new VP to be approved by majority of Congress (both houses)
    • President disabled?Vice President shall serve as President
what s the need for the president s right hand man
What’s the need for the President’s “right-hand man”?
  • The Vice Presidency
    • Requirements: Same as Presidency (35/native/14)
    • Powers
      • Presides over the Senate
      • Votes on Senate deadlocks (50-50 ties)
      • Takes over for President under following conditions
        • Resignation
        • Removal
        • Death
who helps the president
Who helps the President?
  • Presidential Advisors and Assistants
    • EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENTS: The President’s Cabinethas grown from 3 positions to 15 today
who helps the president1
Who helps the President?
  • PRESIDENT’S CABINET:George Washington began practice of having department heads and advisors meet with President  developed through precedent
    • THOMAS JEFFERSON: Secretary of State
    • ALEXANDER HAMILTON: Secretary of Treasury
    • HENRY KNOX:Secretary of War
    • EDMUND RANDOLPH: Attorney General
how has the president expanded his power throughout history
How has the President expanded his power throughout history?
  • The Unwritten Constitution

UNWRITTEN CONSTITUTION: Concepts not specifically written in the Constitution, but developed through precedent and time

    • The President’s “elastic clause”:Events and laws that result from Presidential action (ex: Louisiana Purchase)
    • Cabinet
    • Political parties
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