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Psychology 305A: Theories of Personality Lecture 6. 1. Student Directed Seminar Term 2: ASTU 400A Mondays 4pm – 7pm. A.D.H.D. Graduate seminar format - Lead a class, dive deeper - Feedback on presentation, content analysis and discussion

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Psychology 305A: Theories of Personality

Lecture 6

1

Psychology 305


A d h d

Student Directed Seminar

Term 2: ASTU 400A Mondays 4pm – 7pm

A.D.H.D.

Graduate seminar format- Lead a class, dive deeper

- Feedback on presentation, content analysis and discussion

Successfully manage everyday difficulties- Practical knowledge to use or share (while earning credit)

- Knowledge breadth and depth

Challenge your current paradigm

- Empirical research (implications of knowledge, effect on society, personal impact)

- Increase awareness of stigma, personal accountability and social responsibility

Attention Detours on a Highway Drive

Application Required!

Email: [email protected]


Announcement

Students who wish to obtain more information regarding Psychology 417A: Psychology and Developing Societies may attend a course-specific information session at the Go Global Showcase.Date: Wednesday, October 3, 2012 Time: 4:30-5:15pm Location: Irving K. Barber, room 302 (Dodson Room)


The Biological Perspective

  • 1. What are the basic principles of evolutionary theory?

  • How have the basic principles of evolutionary theory been adapted to the study of personality?

  • 3. What hypotheses has the evolutionary approach generated regarding (a) altruism, (b) sex differences in the desire for sexual variety, and (c) sex differences in jealousy?

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By the end of today’s class, you should be able to:

1. describe natural selection, sexual selection, intrasexual selection, and intersexual selection.

2. generate examples of distinct forms of selection.

3. define the term “inclusive fitness.”

4. review research supporting evolutionary hypotheses related to altruism.

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5. define the terms “reproductive capacity” and “minimal parental investment.”

6. review research supporting evolutionary hypotheses related to sex differences in the desire for sexual variety and jealousy.

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What are the basic principles of evolutionary theory
What are the basic principles of evolutionary theory? “minimal parental investment.”

  • According to Darwin’s theory of evolution, across successive generations of a species, organisms develop characteristics that enhance their ability to survive and reproduce (i.e., adaptations).

  • Darwin maintained that there are two processes through which organisms develop these characteristics:

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1. Natural selection “minimal parental investment.”

  • A process through which organisms develop characteristics that enhance their ability to survive.

  • Organisms that possess characteristics that enhance their ability to survive are more likely to live to reproductive age and to pass these characteristics on to the next generation.

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  • Through this process, characteristics that enhance the organism’s ability to survive increase in frequency across successive generations of the species until they characterize virtually all members of the species.

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  • Example: The more likely to live to reproductive age and to pass the characteristics on to yet the next generation.preference for sweet, fatty, and salty foods among humans.

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2. Sexual selection more likely to live to reproductive age and to pass the characteristics on to yet the next generation.

  • A process through which organisms develop characteristics that enhance their ability to reproduce.

  • Darwin maintained that there are 2 mechanisms through which sexual selection occurs:

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(a) Intrasexual selection more likely to live to reproductive age and to pass the characteristics on to yet the next generation.

  • Occurs when same sex organisms compete for the sexual interest of the opposite sex.

  • Organisms that possess characteristics that enable them to “win” the sexual interest of the opposite sex are more likely to mate and to pass these characteristics on to the next generation.

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  • Through this process, the characteristics that enabled the victors to win increase in frequency across successive generations of the species until they characterize virtually all members of that sex of the species.

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  • Example: more likely to mate and to pass the characteristics on to yet the next generation. The Ariel Hover Display of the male Bronzed Cowbird.

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(b) Intersexual selection more likely to mate and to pass the characteristics on to yet the next generation.

  • Occurs when organisms of one sex prefer to mate with organisms of the opposite sex that possess specific, desirable characteristics.

  • Organisms that possess characteristics that are desirable to the opposite sex are more likely to mate and to pass these characteristics on to the next generation.

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  • Through this process, characteristics that are desirable to the opposite sex increase in frequency across successive generations of the species until they characterize virtually all members of that sex of the species.

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  • Example: more likely to mate and to pass the characteristics on to yet the next generation.The brilliant plumage of the male peacock.

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How have the basic principles of evolutionary theory been adapted to the study of personality
How have the basic principles of evolutionary theory been adapted to the study of personality?

  • Evolutionary psychologists believe that our basic psychological processes are the product of natural selection and sexual selection.

  • Our psychological processes are seen as adaptations to the survival and reproductive challenges faced by our ancestors.

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What hypotheses has the evolutionary approach generated regarding altruism?

  • Altruism: Refers to a desire to help others, even at the risk of one’s own well-being.

  • Theory of inclusive fitness: Organisms are motivated to enhance their own survival and reproductive potential, as well as the survival and reproductive potential of those who are genetically similar to them.

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  • Hypothesis A: Helping behaviour increases as the degree of genetic overlap increases between the helper and the recipient.

  • Hypothesis B: Helping behaviour increases as the reproductive potential of one’s kin member (i.e., relative) increases.

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  • Asked participants to imagine that people were asleep in a rapidly burning building.

  • Told participants they could only rescue one person.

  • Asked participants to indicate who they would be most willing to save.

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Tendency to Help

.50 .25 .125 .00

Degree of Genetic Overlap

Highly Related

Not Related

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Tendency to Help

1 10 18 45 75

Age of Kin (Years)

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Tendency to Help

Healthy

Sick

.50 .25 .125

Degree of Genetic Overlap

Highly Related

Not Highly Related

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What hypotheses has the evolutionary approach generated regarding sex differences in the desire for sexual variety?

  • Females and males differ in their reproductive capacity and the minimal parental investment that is required to produce an offspring.

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  • Females: Can bear 8 – 12 offspring across the lifespan.

  • Males: Can bear an almost unlimited number of offspring across the lifespan (maximum recorded to date: 900).

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  • Females: Carry and nourish fetus for 9 months; nurse child after birth; during lactation, ovulation is suppressed.

  • Males: Engage in copulation.

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  • Females: Employ strategies that restrict copulation to males who are able to provide care and resources for the offspring.

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  • Hypothesis A: Males are less discriminating in their selection of sexual partners than females.

  • Hypothesis B: Males are inclined to seek more sexual partners than females.

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  • Clark and Hatfield (1984)

  • Had confederates approach students of the opposite sex on campus.

  • After saying “Hi, I’ve been noticing you around campus lately and I find you very attractive,” the confederates asked the students 1 of 3 questions:

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Percent Who Agreed psychologists have generated 2 interrelated hypotheses regarding sex differences in the desire for sexual variety:

MaleFemale

“Would you go out on a date with me tonight?”

50 55

“Would you go back to my apartment with me tonight?”

69 6

“Would you have sex with me tonight?”

75 0

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  • Buss and Schmitt (1993)

  • Asked unmarried participants how many sex partners they would like to have through to the end of their lives.

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20

Males

15

DesiredNumber of Partners

10

Females

5

0

1 2 3 4 5 10 20 Life

Time (Years)

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What hypotheses has the evolutionary approach generated regarding sex differences in jealousy
What hypotheses has the evolutionary approach generated regarding sex differences in jealousy?

  • Evolutionary psychologists maintain that, once a mate has been selected with whom to copulate, males and females encounter different adaptive problems.

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  • Males: Must ensure that their mates do not copulate with other males, as this would result in uncertainty regarding the paternity of offspring.

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  • Hypothesis A: Females are more likely than males to become jealous in response to cues that suggest emotional infidelity.

  • Hypothesis B: Males are more likely than females to become jealous in response to cues that suggest sexual infidelity.

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  • Buss et al. (1992; see also Buunk et al., 1996; Miller & Maner, 2009; Schutzwohl & Kock, 2004):

  • Presented participants with the following dilemma:

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  • Think of a serious, committed romantic relationship that you had in the past, that you currently have, or that you would like to have. Imagine that you discover that the person with whom you’ve been seriously involved has become interested in someone else. Of the following, what would distress or upset you more?

  • Imagining your partner forming a deep emotional attachment to that person.

  • Imagining your partner enjoying passionate sexual intercourse with that other person.

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  • Results consistent with Hypotheses A and B. had in the past, that you currently have, or that you would like to have. Imagine that you discover that the person with whom you’ve been seriously involved has become interested in someone else. Of the following, what would distress or upset you more?

Percentage Reporting More Distress to Sexual Infidelity

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Psychology 305


The Biological Perspective had in the past, that you currently have, or that you would like to have. Imagine that you discover that the person with whom you’ve been seriously involved has become interested in someone else. Of the following, what would distress or upset you more?

  • 1. What are the basic principles of evolutionary theory?

  • How have the basic principles of evolutionary theory been adapted to the study of personality?

  • 3. What hypotheses has the evolutionary approach generated regarding (a) altruism, (b) sex differences in the desire for sexual variety, and (c) sex differences in jealousy?

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