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Chapter 2. The First Americans. Lesson 1. The First Americans. People Arrive in the Americas. Scientists are not sure how the first humans came to North America. One idea they have is that _____________ came across a land bridge between ________ and ________ _____________.

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Chapter 2

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Chapter 2

Chapter 2

The First Americans

Lesson 1

Lesson 1

The First Americans

People arrive in the americas

People Arrive in the Americas

  • Scientists are not sure how the first humans came to North America.

  • One idea they have is that _____________ came across a land bridge between ________ and ________ _____________.

  • Another theory is that people traveled by ___________ along the coast or across the oceans.



  • Thousands of years ago, Earth was much colder than it is today. This time is history was known as the ______ _______ because glaciers coverer much of the world.

  • At the Bering Strait between Alaska (North America) and Asia, the ocean floor was exposed because the much of the ocean was frozen. This “land bridge” was called ____________.

Chapter 2

  • Humans hunted the _______ _______ such as the __________ _________ that lived in Beringia.

  • Over many years, hunters migrated to North America following the large animals that they were hunting.

  • After about 10,000 years, the Ice began to melt covering Beringia under water.

  • These first Americans, the hunters, were known as ________-________. Peleo means ________.

Civilizations develop

Civilizations Develop

  • Over time, people adapted to changes in their surroundings.

  • Around 9,000 years ago, Paleo-Indians began to practice ______________, or farming.

  • Scientists believe that the people in present-day Mexico were the first farmers in America.

  • They grew corn, squash and beans. This trio of crops has the nickname “the three sisters.”

Chapter 2

Agriculture changed the way people lived. It takes months to raise crops, so they had to settle in one place. Also they had a steady supply of food.

Populations grew and people built __________ and cities.

This settling in one place was the beginning of civilization.

Civilization is a group of people who together have a system of ___________, religion, and a shared way of life.

Chapter 2

The Mound Builders

The Adena, Hopewell, and Mississippians were among the earliest to create large, complex _____________ in North America.

They built ____________, or giant hills, out of the earth which they used to ________ _______ ________.

The Mississippians are believed to be the ancestors of the ________ ____________.

Chapter 2

The Mound Builders

  • _________________

  • _________________

  • _________________

    Located in Illinois, the Ohio River Valley, and the lower Mississippi Valley, most of the Southeast, and as far as Wisconsin.

Chapter 2


  • The Olmec lived in present-day Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, and Costa Rica (or Central America).

  • The Olmec cleared _______ __________, and fast-growing trees and __________ the land.

  • They grew _______, ________, and ______ (3 sisters) and gathered ______, _______, and _____ _________. They built the first ________ in the Americas. They also built the first ____________, or a way of transporting water over long distances using pipes or bridges.

Chapter 2

The Maya

  • The Maya began living what is now Mexico and Central America.

  • They built _________ and large ____________.

  • They developed a form or ___________that they used to record their _________.

  • They also created an accurate _____________.

  • They were also skilled in ________________ and _____________, or the study of the stars, planets, sun and moon.

  • Their civilization began to abandon their cities when they could not produce enough ____________.

The aztecs

The Aztecs

  • The Aztec civilization ruled in Central Mexico. Their capital city was __________________.

  • Tenochtitlan had buildings, ________, and a population of about 250,000 people.

  • They built large ________ which some had ___________ ___________ for a game similar to present day _______________.

Lesson 2

Lesson 2

Peoples of the West

Northwest peoples

Northwest Peoples

  • The Pacific Northwest is a __________ ______ that stretches from Alaska to northern California.

  • This region is bordered by _____________ to the east and ________ to the west.

Northwest way of life

Northwest Way of Life

  • Northwest Indians ________ and __________ everything they needed from nearby land and water.

  • ___________ from the river was an important resource. They would catch extra, or a _________, of salmon and dry it so they could eat it all year.

  • _______ was another important resource. They used it to carve cedar logs and canoes. They used the canoes to carry goods to _____ with other Indians and to _______ _______.

  • They built _______ ________ using boards from trees.

  • They carved _________ _________ and painted them to record their families history.

Southwest peoples

Southwest Peoples

  • The Southwest is a region that includes all of present-day ________ and _____ _________.

  • It also stretches across sections of Utah, Colorado, Nevada, Texas, southern California and northern Mexico.

  • A large part of this regions is _______, ________ ___________.

  • In some places there are _____________, or a high, steep-sided area of land that rises above the surrounding land.

Southwest farming

Southwest Farming

  • The __________ of the Southwest affected the life of American Indians.

  • The lack of ________ made agriculture difficult.

  • Many Southwest Indians used ________, or a way of supplying water to crops with streams, ditches, or pipes.

  • They planted ________ deep in the ground so that the roots could get moisture from the earth.

Southwest beliefs

Southwest Beliefs

  • _____________ was at the center of many Southwest Indian customs. __________ is the belief in one or more gods.

  • They believed it was their duty to be good ________________________ of the land.

  • They had _________, or special events, at which people gather to express important beliefs.

  • At one ceremony called the _______ _______, the Hopi danced and prayed for a good harvest.

Great plains people

Great Plains People

  • The Great Plains lie in the _________ of North America. They stretch from the ____________ ____________ to the ________ ___________ and from ____________ to _____________.

  • The plains may seem empty, but the grasslands are a rich environment. Many ___________ and different kinds of ________ live there.

  • They settled in villages near _________ in homes made of ________, ________, and _________.

  • They were farmers, but they also hunted ________________.

Life on the western plains

Life on the Western Plains

  • The _____ ___________ of the Western Plains made farming ____________.

  • However, the area had plenty of __________.

  • These woolly animals gave the Western Plains Indians everything they needed to live.

  • They were _________, or they traveled from place to place, following the _________ herds.

  • They carried their belongings with them, and they lived in ___________, which are tents made of buffalo skin.

Horses on the plains

Horses on the Plains

  • ____________ ___________ brought horses to North America in the 1500s.

  • These animals changed the lives of the Plains Indians.

  • Having horses made it easier for nomad groups to ________ and ___________.

  • __________ was measured by how many horses a person owned because of how horses were valued.

  • The ___________ were fierce warriors on horseback and became one of the most powerful Plains groups, or nations.

Lesson 3

Lesson 3

Peoples of the East

The eastern woodlands

The Eastern Woodlands

  • The eastern part of the US is a large, varied region. It has hills, mountains, plains, and valleys.

  • The area does have one thing in common. It receives enough rain to support a forest. This forest is known as the _________ _________.

  • It stretches from the __________ Ocean to the _______________ River, and from the ______ of ___________ to the _____ ______.

People and the land

People and the Land

  • The __________ __________ of the Eastern Woodlands shaped the lives of those that lived there.

  • They hunted ________, _______, and ________ for food.

  • They also got food from the plants. In the north, they made ________ from the sap of maple trees, and near the Great Lakes they gathered _____ _____.

  • Unlike the Plains Indians, they did not rely on a _______ food source such as the buffalo.

Farming and building

Farming and Building

  • Most Woodland Indians were ___________.

  • They cleared forests by cutting down the larger trees and _________ the area. They planted ________ between the tree stumps.

  • They grew the three sisters: ______, _______, and _________.

  • They made different kinds of home and clothing to match the _________ where they lived.

Haudenosaunee iroquois

Haudenosaunee (Iroquois)

  • The Haudenosaunee, also known as the Iroquois, built longhouses.

  • Longhouses are large houses made with ______ _______ and ________.

  • _______ families usually lived together in longhouses.

  • Their name means “__________ of the _______________.”

The haudenosaunee

The Haudenosaunee

  • The Haudenosaunee people lived in what is now ________ ________ ______.

  • For years they ________ each other. This fighting made them weak.

  • They joined a confederation, or a type of _______________ in which separate groups work together, known as the ______________ _____________.

Haudenosaunee government

Haudenosaunee Government

  • The Haudenosaunee League was governed by ___________ from each nation.

  • All five nations had to _________ before any action could be taken.

  • The Haudenosaunee lived in ________. The _______ __________ had an important part in their government because they chose the __________ who led the nations.

Haudenosaunee trading

Haudenosaunee Trading

  • The nations __________ with other Woodland Indians.

  • They sometimes used ________, or belts made from shaped and cut seashells, to symbolize agreements.

  • They also _________, or traded, for goods.

  • After Europeans arrived in the 1600s, the Haudenosaunee bartered ______ for _________ and knives.

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