Questioning Skills of EFL Teachers By Masduki May, 2011. Ice-breaking Background: Character Shift is here in the “S ong of Questions”. Song I: “Kowe bocah ngendi Le?” “Kula lare ndesa” “Kowe arep nyangdi Le?” “Badhe dateng kuta” “Kathik nggawa arit Le?” “Damel mbacok Landa”
A Shift in the Teaching of Reading: here accordingly!
A Traditional Approach To Reading
from the text
Goodman (1995): Psycholinguistic Model
Eskey (1998): Interactive Model
Anderson (2000): Schema Theory
A reader makes use of his organ information processing for:
The Interactive Approach Suggests here accordingly!
What can we learn from the models: here accordingly!
Lower level skills are known as identification skills: here accordingly!
Higher level skills require more cognitive efforts:
Fluent reading occurs only when lower and higher levels operate together.
What happens in EFL reading classes ? here accordingly!
EFL Reading Classes :
AN EFL TEACHING PROBLEM
EFL Reading Classes continued here accordingly!
Who ? here accordingly!
Teacher’s Intervention Is Required
How/What Intervention ? here accordingly!
In EFL Reading Classes :
Why Questions? here accordingly!
Through asking questions, teachers help learners:
IT IS ALMOST IMPPOSSIBLE TO CONCEIVE OF TEACHING WITHOUT ASKING QUESTIONS
This Study : here accordingly!
A particular concern with the use of questions by non-native English teachers, focusing on:
(how teachers should make use of questions effectively in teaching)
The Research Problems here accordingly!:
4.1 Display Questions:
Requesting the students to display their knowledge known by the teacher
Asking for information which is not known by the teacher
With only a single correct answer
With multiple correct answers
Translation (Code Switching)
The range of questions as observed falls into two categories:
Display and Referential
Display > Referential
The observed teachers :
Activate lower level skill of reading
Call for surface level meaning
Response Types of questions
(e.g Wh-Question > Yes/No Question)
Open question types trigger more complex utterances than closed questions types
No rigid separation of question types took place during the reading
No single type of question turned out to be the most effective
Combination of display and referential Effective
Pausing Effective questioning strategies
Probing +Modif. (Helping /facilitating students to reach the
Rephrasing +Modif. intended responses in comprehending a reading
Effective questioning strategy in one reading class (L-1)
Not always effective in another class (L-2/EFL)
Language proficiency of teachers and learners
Level of questions
Purpose of questioning
No rigid separation of strategy took place during the reading
No single type of strategy turned out to be the most effective
Combination of more than one strategy
(for specific shared purpose)
Teachers’ Intervention in ESP is required.
The intervention is directed to the use effective questions and questioning strategies
High order thinking
Exploration of concept and Ideas
High level questions (referential)
Teaching Asking Question
Adopt questioning strategies increasing students’ involvement !
Support a special training for questioning skill !
Question Important tool in language classroom
Strategy Modification Make students get involved
A quantitative study to see the effect of different types of questions on the student responses in other language skill is interesting
The students’ psychological effect upon receiving questions
Investigation involving more subjects with different background
The study is intended to explore:
The types and the strategies that make teacher question effective in reading comprehension courses.
to enable descriptions and in-depth analyses
A Case Study
To describe some possible aspects that make EFL Teacher Questions Effective.
The subjects required:
English teachers of reading comprehension course
Those who are believed:
(Questioning The act to be observed)
Exemplary Teachers (Good Teachers) Needed!
How to select?
“Selecting a sample of participants/subjects who is perceived to be special, relevant, and to have superior performance, and thus, deserve to be the exemplary sample”
Conducted in UMM; 46 teachers were selected
2 exemplary teachers found
Utterances of Reading Comprehension Teachers:
Teacher questions and Students’ opinion (statements)
Teachers and Students as a Source of data
Teacher questions and statements
Transcriptions of teacher questions
Human instrument to respond, adapt, emphasize, expand, process, clarify, and explore during data collection and analysis
To write everything the researcher experiences and thinks during the data collection
To record the events in the field
Data Collection Questions
Process of Data Analysis
Developing Research Design Questions