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Orbitals and Quantum NumbersPowerPoint Presentation

Orbitals and Quantum Numbers

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Objective

- Students will be able to describe the quantum numbers n, l, and ml used to define an orbital in an atom, and list the limitations placed on the values each may have.

What is an orbital?

- An orbital is an allowed energy state of an electron in the quantum-mechanical model of the atom; the term orbital is also used to describe the spatial distribution of the electron.
- Defined by the values of 3 quantum numbers: n, l, and ml

4 Quantum Numbers

- (reminder: quantum numbers specify the properties of atomic orbitals and the properties of electrons in orbitals)
- 1) The principle quantum number (n) indicates the main energy level occupied by the electron
- n can have integral values of 1, 2, 3, etc.

- 2) the angular momentum (or azimuthal) quantum number (symbolized by l ) indicates the shape of the orbital
- l can take on integral values from 0 to n-1 for each value of n

- Value of (symbolized by l letter used
0 s

1 p

2 d

3 f

- 3) the magnetic quantum number (m (symbolized by l) describes the orientation of the orbital in space
- It can take on values from l to –l

- 4) Electron Spin Quantum Number (m (symbolized by s)
- This number indicates the two fundamental spin states of an electron in an orbital
- This quantum number can only have two possible values, +1/2 or -1/2

- Pauli Exclusion Principle – states that no two electrons in an atom can have the same set of 4 quantum numbers n, l, ml, and ms

Practice Problem in an atom can have the same set of 4 quantum numbers

- 1) For n=4, what are the possible values of l ?

Answer in an atom can have the same set of 4 quantum numbers

- l = 0,1,2,3
- (what do these values correspond to?)

Practice Problem #2 in an atom can have the same set of 4 quantum numbers

- For l =2, what are the possible values of ml ?

Answer in an atom can have the same set of 4 quantum numbers

- ml = 2,1,0,-1,-2
- (what do these values correspond to?)

Practice Problem #3 in an atom can have the same set of 4 quantum numbers

- State whether the following is a permissible set of quantum numbers for an electron in a hydrogen atom:
n=2, l = 1, ml = 1

Answer in an atom can have the same set of 4 quantum numbers

- Yes, it’s permissible (2p)

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