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Disability and Equity In Special Education: Where Do We Go From Here? . Stephen Byrd School of Education Elon University . Introduction: . Session Goals Gain an understanding of special education and disabilities

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Disability and equity in special education where do we go from here

Disability and Equity In Special Education: Where Do We Go From Here?

Stephen Byrd

School of Education

Elon University


Introduction
Introduction: From Here?


Session Goals From Here?

Gain an understanding of special education and disabilities

Gain an understanding the issues of surrounding equity in special education

Think about next steps


Agenda
Agenda: From Here?

What is special education?

Disability

Disproportionality

Conclusion


“Special education means specially designed instruction that meets the unusual needs of an exceptional student, and which might requirespecial materialsteaching techniquesequipment and/or facilities.”(Hallahan, Kauffman, & Pullen, 2009, p. 12)


Special education

Special Education… that meets the unusual needs of an exceptional student, and which might require

An educational system designed to address the inequity of students who were not receiving a free and public education in their local school.


Facts
Facts that meets the unusual needs of an exceptional student, and which might require

About 6 million students are enrolled in special education.

About 14% of the school population has an identified disability of some type.

About 78% of the students with disabilities spend a large portion of the day in the general education classroom.


A look at the law
A Look at the Law that meets the unusual needs of an exceptional student, and which might require

Public Law 94-142 - Education for All Handicapped Children Act (1975)

  • Signed by Gerald Ford

  • Zero reject

  • Non-discriminatory evaluation

  • Individualized Education Plan

  • Least Restrictive Environment

  • Due process

  • Parental participation


A look at the law1
A Look at the Law: that meets the unusual needs of an exceptional student, and which might require

  • Public Law 99-457: EHA 1986

    • Infants and toddlers

    • Reduce likelihood of institutionalization

    • Family support

  • Public Law 101-476 – Individuals with Disabilities Act (IDEA) 1990

    • Transition

    • Autism and traumatic brain injury categories added

  • ADA (Americans with Disabilities Act)

    • Civil Rights for those with disabilities

    • After age 21


A look at the law2
A Look at the Law that meets the unusual needs of an exceptional student, and which might require

IDEA 1997

  • Parent Participation

  • Participation in testing

    IDEA 2004

  • Use of scientifically-based instruction for identifying learning disabilities

    • In most places – Response-to-intervention (RTI)

  • Mandated testing

  • Paperwork reduction

  • Use of funding for intervention programs

  • Parent Involvement


What are the defining features of special education
What are the defining features of Special Education? that meets the unusual needs of an exceptional student, and which might require

  • Appropriate indentification

  • Individually planned

  • Specialized

  • Intensive

  • Goal-directed

  • Using research-based methods

  • Guided by student performance


Disability

Disability… that meets the unusual needs of an exceptional student, and which might require


“A disability is an inability to do something that most people, with typical maturation, opportunity, or instruction can do.

Kauffman et al, 2005, p. 30


General signs
General signs: people, with typical maturation, opportunity, or instruction can do.

Persistence of the problem

Severity of the problem

Speed of progress

Motivation

Parental concerns


Disability categories
Disability Categories people, with typical maturation, opportunity, or instruction can do.

High Incidence Disabilities:

Learning Disabilities

Communication Disorders

Intellectual Disability

Emotional/Behavioral Disorders

Autism

Other Health Impaired (OHI)

Developmental delay – until age 8

Low Incidence Disabilities:

Multiple disabilities

Hearing Impairment

Visual Impairment

Traumatic Brain Injury

Other Impairment


Types of placements
Types of Placements people, with typical maturation, opportunity, or instruction can do.

General Education classroom with supports

Resource classroom

Self-contained classroom

Special school

Hospital setting

Home-bound


The case of

The Case of… people, with typical maturation, opportunity, or instruction can do.

Michael, June…


Assessment process for identification
Assessment Process for Identification people, with typical maturation, opportunity, or instruction can do.


Disproportionality

Disproportionality people, with typical maturation, opportunity, or instruction can do.…

“The representation of a group in a category that exceeds our expectations for that group, or differs substantially from the representations of others in that category”

Artiles, Kozleski, Trent, Osher, & Ortiz, 2008, p. 266


Ways to measure
Ways to Measure: people, with typical maturation, opportunity, or instruction can do.

  • Composition index

    • The extent to which a group is over- or underrepresented in a category compared to its proportion in the broader population

    • 33% labeled intellectual disability while 17% of the general population

  • Risk index

    • The extent to which a group is found eligible for service at a rate differing from that of other groups


Students ages 6 21 served under idea by race ethnicity fall 2007 in the us and outlying areas
Students Ages 6-21 Served under IDEA, by Race/Ethnicity people, with typical maturation, opportunity, or instruction can do.(Fall 2007) in the US and outlying areas


North carolina
North Carolina people, with typical maturation, opportunity, or instruction can do.


Where do we go from here
Where do we go from here? people, with typical maturation, opportunity, or instruction can do.

Teacher Education programs

Policy

Greater care in testing, evaluation, and interpretation

Working with stakeholders at the pre-referral stage

Response to intervention


Remember the kids
Remember the kids… people, with typical maturation, opportunity, or instruction can do.


Effective teaching
Effective Teaching… people, with typical maturation, opportunity, or instruction can do.


Reaching out to families
Reaching out to families… people, with typical maturation, opportunity, or instruction can do.


Learn internationally
Learn internationally… people, with typical maturation, opportunity, or instruction can do.


See strengths and work together
See Strengths…and work together people, with typical maturation, opportunity, or instruction can do.


References
References: people, with typical maturation, opportunity, or instruction can do.

Hallahan, D. P., Kauffman, J. M., & Pullen, P. C. (2009). Exceptional learners: An introduction to special education. (11th ed.). Allyn & Bacon.

Various Authors. (2008). Special Issue: Culturally, diverse exceptional students: Remembering the past, looking toward the future. Exceptional Children, 74, 262-399.


Thank you for attending. people, with typical maturation, opportunity, or instruction can do.

I will put these materials up on my Elon website at:

http://facstaff.elon.edu/sbyrd2/


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