Disability and Equity In Special Education: Where Do We Go From Here? . Stephen Byrd School of Education Elon University . Introduction: . Session Goals Gain an understanding of special education and disabilities
School of Education
Session Goals From Here?
Gain an understanding of special education and disabilities
Gain an understanding the issues of surrounding equity in special education
Think about next steps
What is special education?
“Special education means specially designed instruction that meets the unusual needs of an exceptional student, and which might requirespecial materialsteaching techniquesequipment and/or facilities.”(Hallahan, Kauffman, & Pullen, 2009, p. 12)
An educational system designed to address the inequity of students who were not receiving a free and public education in their local school.
About 6 million students are enrolled in special education.
About 14% of the school population has an identified disability of some type.
About 78% of the students with disabilities spend a large portion of the day in the general education classroom.
Public Law 94-142 - Education for All Handicapped Children Act (1975)
Disability… that meets the unusual needs of an exceptional student, and which might require
“A disability is an inability to do something that most people, with typical maturation, opportunity, or instruction can do.
Kauffman et al, 2005, p. 30
Persistence of the problem
Severity of the problem
Speed of progress
High Incidence Disabilities:
Other Health Impaired (OHI)
Developmental delay – until age 8
Low Incidence Disabilities:
Traumatic Brain Injury
General Education classroom with supports
“The representation of a group in a category that exceeds our expectations for that group, or differs substantially from the representations of others in that category”
Artiles, Kozleski, Trent, Osher, & Ortiz, 2008, p. 266
Teacher Education programs
Greater care in testing, evaluation, and interpretation
Working with stakeholders at the pre-referral stage
Response to intervention
Hallahan, D. P., Kauffman, J. M., & Pullen, P. C. (2009). Exceptional learners: An introduction to special education. (11th ed.). Allyn & Bacon.
Various Authors. (2008). Special Issue: Culturally, diverse exceptional students: Remembering the past, looking toward the future. Exceptional Children, 74, 262-399.
Thank you for attending. people, with typical maturation, opportunity, or instruction can do.
I will put these materials up on my Elon website at: