Disability and equity in special education where do we go from here
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Disability and Equity In Special Education: Where Do We Go From Here? . Stephen Byrd School of Education Elon University . Introduction: . Session Goals Gain an understanding of special education and disabilities

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Disability and equity in special education where do we go from here

Disability and Equity In Special Education: Where Do We Go From Here?

Stephen Byrd

School of Education

Elon University


Introduction

Introduction:


Disability and equity in special education where do we go from here

Session Goals

Gain an understanding of special education and disabilities

Gain an understanding the issues of surrounding equity in special education

Think about next steps


Agenda

Agenda:

What is special education?

Disability

Disproportionality

Conclusion


Disability and equity in special education where do we go from here

“Special education means specially designed instruction that meets the unusual needs of an exceptional student, and which might requirespecial materialsteaching techniquesequipment and/or facilities.”(Hallahan, Kauffman, & Pullen, 2009, p. 12)


Special education

Special Education…

An educational system designed to address the inequity of students who were not receiving a free and public education in their local school.


Facts

Facts

About 6 million students are enrolled in special education.

About 14% of the school population has an identified disability of some type.

About 78% of the students with disabilities spend a large portion of the day in the general education classroom.


A look at the law

A Look at the Law

Public Law 94-142 - Education for All Handicapped Children Act (1975)

  • Signed by Gerald Ford

  • Zero reject

  • Non-discriminatory evaluation

  • Individualized Education Plan

  • Least Restrictive Environment

  • Due process

  • Parental participation


A look at the law1

A Look at the Law:

  • Public Law 99-457: EHA 1986

    • Infants and toddlers

    • Reduce likelihood of institutionalization

    • Family support

  • Public Law 101-476 – Individuals with Disabilities Act (IDEA) 1990

    • Transition

    • Autism and traumatic brain injury categories added

  • ADA (Americans with Disabilities Act)

    • Civil Rights for those with disabilities

    • After age 21


A look at the law2

A Look at the Law

IDEA 1997

  • Parent Participation

  • Participation in testing

    IDEA 2004

  • Use of scientifically-based instruction for identifying learning disabilities

    • In most places – Response-to-intervention (RTI)

  • Mandated testing

  • Paperwork reduction

  • Use of funding for intervention programs

  • Parent Involvement


What are the defining features of special education

What are the defining features of Special Education?

  • Appropriate indentification

  • Individually planned

  • Specialized

  • Intensive

  • Goal-directed

  • Using research-based methods

  • Guided by student performance


Disability

Disability…


Disability and equity in special education where do we go from here

“A disability is an inability to do something that most people, with typical maturation, opportunity, or instruction can do.

Kauffman et al, 2005, p. 30


General signs

General signs:

Persistence of the problem

Severity of the problem

Speed of progress

Motivation

Parental concerns


Disability categories

Disability Categories

High Incidence Disabilities:

Learning Disabilities

Communication Disorders

Intellectual Disability

Emotional/Behavioral Disorders

Autism

Other Health Impaired (OHI)

Developmental delay – until age 8

Low Incidence Disabilities:

Multiple disabilities

Hearing Impairment

Visual Impairment

Traumatic Brain Injury

Other Impairment


Types of placements

Types of Placements

General Education classroom with supports

Resource classroom

Self-contained classroom

Special school

Hospital setting

Home-bound


The case of

The Case of…

Michael, June…


Assessment process for identification

Assessment Process for Identification


Disproportionality

Disproportionality…

“The representation of a group in a category that exceeds our expectations for that group, or differs substantially from the representations of others in that category”

Artiles, Kozleski, Trent, Osher, & Ortiz, 2008, p. 266


Ways to measure

Ways to Measure:

  • Composition index

    • The extent to which a group is over- or underrepresented in a category compared to its proportion in the broader population

    • 33% labeled intellectual disability while 17% of the general population

  • Risk index

    • The extent to which a group is found eligible for service at a rate differing from that of other groups


Students ages 6 21 served under idea by race ethnicity fall 2007 in the us and outlying areas

Students Ages 6-21 Served under IDEA, by Race/Ethnicity (Fall 2007) in the US and outlying areas


North carolina

North Carolina


Where do we go from here

Where do we go from here?

Teacher Education programs

Policy

Greater care in testing, evaluation, and interpretation

Working with stakeholders at the pre-referral stage

Response to intervention


Remember the kids

Remember the kids…


Effective teaching

Effective Teaching…


Reaching out to families

Reaching out to families…


Learn internationally

Learn internationally…


See strengths and work together

See Strengths…and work together


References

References:

Hallahan, D. P., Kauffman, J. M., & Pullen, P. C. (2009). Exceptional learners: An introduction to special education. (11th ed.). Allyn & Bacon.

Various Authors. (2008). Special Issue: Culturally, diverse exceptional students: Remembering the past, looking toward the future. Exceptional Children, 74, 262-399.


Disability and equity in special education where do we go from here

Thank you for attending. 

I will put these materials up on my Elon website at:

http://facstaff.elon.edu/sbyrd2/


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