Disks of be stars their pulsations
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Disks of Be Stars & Their Pulsations &. Qingkang Li Department of Astronomy Beijing Normal University The Third Workshop of SONG, April, 2010. Collaborators: J. C. Brown, Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, UK

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Disks of be stars their pulsations

Disks of Be Stars & Their Pulsations &

Qingkang Li

Department of Astronomy

Beijing Normal University

The Third Workshop of SONG, April, 2010


Disks of be stars their pulsations

  • Collaborators:

  • J. C. Brown, Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, UK

  • J. P. Cassinelli, Dept of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA

  • R. Ignace, Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, University of East Tennessee, USA

  • And many others.


Contents

Contents

  • 1. Introduction

  • 2. The mystery of the Be stars

  • 3. Be star disk models

  • 4. Discussion


Disks of be stars their pulsations

1. Introduction

  • Over the course of their lifetimes, hot, luminous, massive (OB-type) stars lose large amount of mass in nearly continuous outflow called stellar winds.

  • These winds are driven by scattering of the star’s continuum radiation in a large ensemble of spectral lines (Castor, Abbott & Klein 1975).

  • There is extensive evidence for variability and structure on both small and large scales.


Solar activities coronal expansion

SOHO Extreme ultraviolet (171 Angstrom)

Solar Activities: Coronal Expansion


Wind blown bubbles in ism

WR wind bubble NGC 2359

Superbubble in the

Large Magellanic Cloud

Wind-Blown Bubbles in ISM


Eta carinae

Eta Carinae


Disks of be stars their pulsations

OB stars in the HR diagram

  • O, B spectral type stars

    • Teff > 10,000 K

    • L* > 100 Lsun

    • M* > 3 Msun


Hot massive pulsators

Hot massive pulsators


Disks of be stars their pulsations

Pulsating starsin the HR diagram


Disks of be stars their pulsations

βCep variables: pulsation periods P~2-10 hrs, low-order p and g modes, B0-B2

Slowly pulsating B (SPB) stars: P∽10-50 hrs, high-order g modes, B3-B9

Pulsating Be stars: P~similar to SPB up to 100-200 hrs


2 the mystery of the be stars

2. The Mystery of the Be Stars

Be stars are non-supergiant B-type stars whose spectra have, or had at some time, one or more Balmer lines in emission. The mystery of the "Be phenomenon" is that the emission, which is well understood to originate from a flattened circumstellar disk (e.g. Struve, 1931), can come and go episodically on time scales of days to decades.


B e stars

Hb

Ha

Hydrogen

spectrum

Intensity

lo

Wavelength

Be stars

  • Hot, bright, & rapidly rotating stars.

  • The “e” stands for emission lines in the star’s spectrum

  • Detailed spectra show emission intensity is split into peaks to blue and red of line-center.

  • This is from Doppler shift of gas moving toward and away from the observer.

  • Indicates a disk of gas orbits the star.


Cartoon of a be star and its emission lines

Cartoon of a Be star and its emission lines

From http://www.astrosurf.org/buil/us/bestar.html


Variability of line profile

Variability of line profile

From http://www.astrosurf.org/buil/us/bestar.html


Key properties

Key Properties

  • Strong, radiatively driven stellar winds

    • ---Mdot ~ 10-10 to 10-6MO/yr; v¥ > 1000 km/s

    • Driven by line-scattering of the star’s radiation


Disks of be stars their pulsations

  • Magnetic Activity

    • Some have observed dipole field ~103-104 G

    • stable; from convective dynamo or fossil?


Disks of be stars their pulsations

  • Stellar Rotation

    • Be stars are generally rapid rotators

    • Vrot ~ 200-400 km/s ~ Vcrit/2

    • Prot ~ few days

    • oblateness and gravity darkening


Disks of be stars their pulsations

  • Stellar Pulsation

    • Many Be stars show Non-Radial Pulsations (NRP) with m < l = 1 – 4

    • Give rise to the line variability.


The key puzzle of be disks

  • So disk matter must be launched from the star.

The Key Puzzle of Be Disks

  • Be stars are too old to still have protostellar disk.

  • And most Be stars are not in close binary systems.

  • They thus lack outside mass source to fall into disk.

How do Be stars

do this?


Disks of be stars their pulsations

The key theoretical concerns on the Be star disks are as follows:

1. What source of energy elevates matter to orbits well above the stellar surface?

2. How does the matter obtain the angular momentum and orbit around the star with Keplerian speed with no observed outflow?

3. How are the very high observed disk density attained?


3 be star disk models

3. Be star disk models

(1) Wind compressed disk model

(Bjorkman, Cassinelli, 1993, ApJ, 409, 429)


Disks of be stars their pulsations

(2) Episodic mass ejection model

(Ando, 1986, A&A, 163, 97; Owocki & Cranmer, 2002, ASP 259, 512, 951; Cranmer, 2009, ApJ, 701, 396)

Observations confirm that Be star line-profile variability is due to the non-radial pulsations (NRP). Some mixed modes of NRP (retrograde) are associated with the transport of angular momentum up to the surface and beyond, saying, pulsational energy may leak out of a hot star into circumstellar medium.

  • low-frequency evanescent pulsations;

  • high-frequency resonant wave excitation at the acoustic cutoff;

  • shock steepening and dissipation;

  • wave pressure & angular momentum transfer.


Disks of be stars their pulsations

(3) Magnetically torqued disk (MTD) model

(Cassinelli, et al., 2002, ApJ, 578, 951)


Disks of be stars their pulsations

MTD+GD

(Brown, et al., 2004, MNRAS, 352, 1061)


Disks of be stars their pulsations

X-ray emission from MTD+GD

Li, et al., 2008, ApJ, 672,1174


Disks of be stars their pulsations

X-ray emission from MTD+GD

Li, et al., 2008, ApJ, 672,1174


4 combination of all stuff

(4) Combination of all stuff

Wind

+ B-field

+ Rotation

+ Pulsation

?


Disks of be stars their pulsations

Painted by John C. Brown


Disks of be stars their pulsations

  • 4. Discussion

  • The disk formation mechanism of Be stars is one of the key issues to hot star research both observational and theoretical.

  • We need new observational facilities, such as SONG.

  • We require the development of simulations.

  • We require the advancement of model atmospheres and radiative transfer techniques

  • We need correct stellar parameters (mass loss rate, rotation, magnetic fields, and pulsations).


Thank you very much for your time

Thank you very much for your time!


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