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“Change”. A History of the Political Parties of the United States from 1791 to 1961 By: Matt Leung Celso Leite. Thesis.

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Change

“Change”

A History of the Political Parties of the United States from 1791 to 1961

By: Matt Leung

Celso Leite


Thesis

Thesis

  • Since their inception, both the Democratic Party and the Republican Party of the United States have undergone significant ideological shifts on the left-right spectrum from 1840 to the 1960.

  • Whereas an ideology that is center-left is defined as an ideology, which supports the use of governmental regulation to achieve social justice and whereas an ideology that is center-right is an ideology, which supports tradition and free enterprise.


Washington s warning

Washington’s Warning

  • In his farewell address in 1791, Washington warned of the dangers of political parties

  • Believed that parties would split the Union and create other political loyalties

  • Removal of political parties could allow people to remain more loyal to the community, state, and nation

  • Recognized their ability to protect against monarchy

  • Could distract government from duties because of various jealousies

Center- Left

Center-Right

Center

Left

Right


Formation of the democratic party

Formation of the Democratic Party

  • Party evolved from the opposition of fiscal policies of Alexander Hamilton

  • Built off of the failing Democratic-Republican Party

    • Ideologically began with the founding of the Democratic-Republican Party in 1791

    • Officially began with Andrew Jackson’s nomination for Democratic presidential candidate for the election of 1832

    • Democratic-Republican Party did NOT split into the Democratic Party and Republican Party

  • First Mass party

  • Small government

  • Andrew Jackson was the first Democratic Party president

Center- Left

Center-Right

Center

Left

Right


Early democratic party

Early Democratic Party

  • Jacksonian Democrats

  • Ideology revolved around speaking for the common man and watching out for their interests

  • Party represented those that were not wealthy planters, merchants, and lawyers

  • Protection of common man and his liberties

  • Suspicious of elitism

  • Faith placed in masses for governmental responsibility and power

  • Suffrage to more men

Center- Left

Center-Right

Center

Left

Right


Early democratic party1

Early Democratic Party

  • Did not mind a strong executive

  • Jacksonian era Democrats were dominated by Jackson during his presidency and gave him little opposition

  • Against central financial institution (Bank of the United States)

  • Policy against the “aristocratic banks”

  • Small government = good

  • No religion in politics

  • Appealed to immigrants

Center- Left

Center-Right

Center

Left

Right


Immediate pre civil war democrats

Immediate Pre-Civil War Democrats

  • Divided on certain issues from sectionalism

    • Northern Democrats

  • Remained firm on a few ideologies

    • Supported immigrants

    • Support for immigrants led to the death of the Whig Party and had a part in creating the Republican Party

    • SECTIONALISM

    • STATES RIGHTS

  • By 1860, the party was nearly fully divided with the majority in the Southern Democrats

  • States Rights led to Civil War

Center- Left

Center-Right

Center

Left

Right


Formation of the republican party

Formation of the Republican Party

  • Ideology

  • Party evolved from Whig policy and adoption of Freesoiler ideals

  • Began with the combination of the Whig Party and a faction of the Democratic Party

    • Ideologically formed as “Republicans” on March 20, 1854

    • Officially began with John C Frémont’s nomination for Republican presidential candidate for the election of 1856

    • Economic policy formed off of existing Whig policy

      • Protectionism

    • Protestant values

  • Abraham Lincoln was the first Republican Party president

Center- Left

Center-Right

Center

Left

Right


Reconstruction era democrats

Reconstruction Era Democrats

  • Party mostly destroyed by direct administration by federal military governments

  • Focus on rebuilding shattered party rather than promoting a single, unified ideology

  • Drew in resentful white Southerners

  • Resentment channeled toward freed blacks

  • Party became one that held three main ideas, the South, segregation and White Supremacism

  • Johnson issued policies that promoted segregation and supported South

    • Amnesty

      • Led to rebuilding antebellum government and black codes

Center- Left

Center-Right

Center

Left

Right


Reconstruction republican party

Reconstruction Republican Party

  • At founding, it was a pro-business, pro-bank, pro-tariff, and pro-gold standard

  • Radical Republicans grew at the end of the Civil War for more progressive measures during Reconstruction moving to the center left

    • Attempted to gain votes from carpetbaggers, Freedmen, and Scalawags

  • Grew extremely large in size from popularity

    • Appealed to nearly all social statuses

  • Larger size made factional splits inevitable

Center- Left

Center-Right

Center

Left

Right


Reconstruction republican party1

Reconstruction Republican Party

  • The large party was threatened to break by the contrary opinions of different factions

  • Corruption during the Grant Presidency by his Cabinet and others hastened the process

    • Whiskey Ring – hypocrisy

  • During this time, multiple founders of the Republican Party decided to shift to a further center-left standpoint

    • Civil Rights became a volatile issue

    • Supported increased Civil Rights

    • Freedmen’s Bureau

  • Large splits and divisions leading up to and during the Gilded Age

Center- Left

Center-Right

Center

Left

Right


Gilded age democrats

Gilded Age Democrats

  • Two distinctive ideologies

  • Bourbon Democrats

    • Backed Grover Cleveland

    • Returned to Jackson’s idea of a “hands off” policy

  • Progressive Democrats

    • End of the Gilded Age

    • Dominated the party during the beginning of the 20th century

Center- Left

Center-Right

Center

Left

Right


Gilded age republican party

Gilded Age Republican Party

  • 3 major factions – split over business and Civil Rights

    • Stalwarts – Defended Spoils System

    • Half-breeds – Wanted reform of Civil Service

    • Mugawumps – Completely rejected Spoils System

  • During the Gilded Age, Northern business boomed

    • Republicans tended to support big business ventures, including the Gold Standard and high tariffs

    • Additionally supported pensions for war veterans

Center- Left

Center-Right

Center

Left

Right


Progressive era republican party

Progressive Era Republican Party

  • Agreed to the Sherman Anti-Trust Act and Interstate Commerce Commission

  • Hurt by the high McKinley Tariff

  • Supported Prohibition

  • Clearly defined religious background

  • Won the 1894 election in the biggest landslide in history, after Democrats were blamed for the Depression of 1893

Center- Left

Center-Right

Center

Left

Right


Progressive era republican party1

Progressive Era Republican Party

  • Environmental issues led to passing of Newlands Reclamation Bill

  • Began the Square Deal

  • “Trust busting”

    • 43 actions by the time TR left office

    • 99 prosecutions by the time Taft left office

  • Input in labor disputes

    • Assisted with anthracite coal strike

Center- Left

Center-Right

Center

Left

Right


Progressive era republican party2

Progressive Era Republican Party

  • Expansionist (Hawaii)

  • Imperialistic policies that thrust America into the world

  • Dynamic foreign policy, created a new government in Philippines

  • Financed revolution in Panama to gain support for the Canal there

  • Roosevelt Corollary to Monroe Doctrine

Center- Left

Center-Right

Center

Left

Right


Progressive democrats

Progressive Democrats

  • Wilsonian Democrats

  • Fight for the common man

  • Supported policies against the banks

  • Fought against those who made too much money during the Gilded Age

  • Fought the “American Aristocracy”

  • To deal with big business they supported

  • Busting of good and bad trusts in order to protect small businessmen

  • Lowering tariff rates to stop protecting big American corporations

Center- Left

Center-Right

Center

Left

Right


Progressive democrats1

Progressive Democrats

  • Regulations that would protect labor unions from trust busting

  • To deal with big banks the Wilsonians supported a complete overhaul of the banks

  • They established a much more centralized banking system under the FED

  • The head of which would be appointed by the President of the United States

  • To deal with the actual “monied” aristocracy

  • They enacted a progressive income tax system

  • Allowed the government to impose selective tax rates so as not to harm the “common man”

Center- Left

Center-Right

Center

Left

Right


Hoover era republican party

Hoover Era Republican Party

  • Hoover elected president

    • Strong center-right policy

  • Stock Market crash led to Great Depression

  • Republican policy stayed conservative in a hands off governmental policy

    • Relied on local level to rectify the poverty

  • “Rugged Individualism”

  • Kept government out of nation’s economic problems

  • When it became obvious that government intervention was required, innovative counteraction programs were implemented

Center- Left

Center-Right

Center

Left

Right


New deal democrats

New Deal Democrats

  • Dominated by the policies of FDR

  • Supported government regulation of corporations and big banks

  • They created regulatory agencies such as the Exchanges Commission

  • They required banks to pay into the FDIC insurance

  • They supported the regulation of oil prices and pipeline construction

  • Increasing the amount of tax the upper class was required to pay

Center- Left

Center-Right

Center

Left

Right


New deal democrats1

New Deal Democrats

  • Believed government should also regulate employment and social stability

  • The expansion of the eminent domain and state seizure for public works

  • Employing people in public works

  • The regulation of employee working hours and wages

  • Regulation increasing the protection afforded to labor unions

  • Establishment of a social security net for the lower classes

Center- Left

Center-Right

Center

Left

Right


Republican party eisenhower presidency

Republican Party (Eisenhower Presidency)

  • Dynamic Conservatism

    • Continued and expanded remaining New Deal policies

    • Pro-tradition

      • Expanded Social Security and built Interstate Highway System

    • Keep Federal government in some areas while moving them out of others

    • Increased domestic and defense spending

  • Objectives included balancing budget and anti-communism

  • Foreign affairs were limited to limiting the spread of communism and adherence to UN

    • Kept United States out of major foreign conflicts despite Cold War tensions

    • Attempted to keep peaceful terms with all nations instead of becoming a belligerent in foreign affairs

Center- Left

Center-Right

Center

Left

Right


Conclusion

Conclusion

Democrats

End

Start

Republicans

Start

End

Center- Left

Center- Left

Center-Right

Center-Right

Center

Center

Left

Left

Right

Right


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