Energy efficiency in compressed air systems
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Energy Efficiency in Compressed Air Systems. Alexander Pavlov IETC, New Orleans, 20-21/05/10. Atlas Copco in a Snapshot. A world-leading provider of industrial productivity solutions .

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Energy efficiency in compressed air systems

Energy Efficiency in Compressed Air Systems

Alexander Pavlov

IETC, New Orleans, 20-21/05/10


Atlas copco in a snapshot

Atlas Copco in a Snapshot

A world-leading provider of industrial productivity solutions.

Products and services range from compressed air and gas equipment, generators, construction and mining equipment, industrial tools and assembly systems, to related aftermarket and rental.

In close cooperation with customers and business partners, Atlas Copco delivers sustainable solutions for increased productivity through innovative products and services.

Headquartered in Sweden, the Group’s global reach spans more than170 markets.

In 2009 Atlas Copco had 30 000 employees and annual revenues of approximately BSEK 64 (BEUR 6.0).


The atlas copco organization

The Atlas Copco Organization

Board of Directors

President and CEO

Executive Group Management and Corporate Functions

CompressorTechnique

Construction and Mining Technique

IndustrialTechnique

Oil-free Air

Industrial Air

Portable Air

Specialty Rental

Gas and Process

Compressor Technique Service

Airtec

Underground RockExcavation

Surface DrillingEquipment

Drilling Solutions

Secoroc

Construction Tools

Road Construction Equipment

Geotechnical Drillingand Exploration

Rocktec

Atlas Copco Tools and Assembly SystemsMotor Vehicle Industry

Atlas Copco Toolsand Assembly Systems General Industry

Chicago Pneumatic

Tooltec

Customer Centers and Service Providers


Worldwide presence

Worldwide Presence

Production sites


Value of energy in compressed air systems

Value of Energy in Compressed Air Systems

70% to 80% of life cycle costs is energy

In EU compressed air accounts for 10%of the energy consumed by industry

1 bar lower in pressure, reduces energy by 7%

Typically, after 5 years leakages can take 20% of the total air consumption

Some useful facts and figures

Energy Savings

Investment 12%

Maintenance 15%

Installation 3%

Energy consumption 70%


Co2 emissions the big picture

CO2 emissions – the big picture

Atlas Copco focus

(95% +)

  • Design of product

  • Energy use

  • Re-use

  • Logistics

  • Less electricity consumption

  • Design of product


Why atlas copco saving energy is our way of life

Why Atlas CopcoSaving energy is our way of life

A century of innovation in energy saving features

Over 400 patents


Eu electricity consumption in compressed air

EU electricity consumption in compressed air

Real consumption in CAS TWh

Share of electricity

In EU the compressed air accounts for 10%of the energy consumed by industry, 80 TWh/year

Source: Compressed air systems in the European Union, 2001, study by Fraunhofer Institute,

ADEME, ECE, University of L’Aquila


Potential contribution to energy savings

Potential contribution to energy savings

Source: Compressed air systems in the European Union, 2001, study by Fraunhofer Institute,

ADEME, ECE, University of L’Aquila

32.9 % = 30.5 TWh/yr = 0.7 million tonnes of CO²/yr


From products to solutions the unique approach

From products to solutionsThe unique approach

Customer needs

Superior solutions

demand

assessment

energy recovery

Total energysaving concept

core

technology

optimizationof the room

drive

technology

energy saving accessories


The energy circle

Customer needs

Superior solutions

The Energy Circle

demand

assessment

energy recovery

core

technology

optimizationof the room

drive

technology

energy saving accessories


Demand assessment

Demand assessment

  • System audit:

    • Flow measurement

    • Pressure measurement

    • Power measurement

  • Report:

    • Simulation of optimal compressor installation

    • Simulation of central control system

    • Potential energy savings

Overall system design


Leak detection

Leak detection

  • Ultrasound leak detection

  • Report

    • Location

    • Leak flow

    • Equivalent energy loss


System assessment air scan tools

System assessmentAirScan -Tools

Flow

Leak detection

Dewpoint measurement

Measurement box

Power/logging device

Temperature

Hot tapping

VIP sens

Flow measurement output


The energy circle1

Customer needs

Superior solutions

The Energy Circle

demand

assessment

energy recovery

core

technology

optimizationof the room

drive

technology

energy saving accessories


Energy efficiency in compressed air systems

Products

Best compression and treatment technologies under one roof

Oil-free scroll compressors

1-15 kW

Oil-free tooth compressors

15-45 kW

Oil-free screw compressors

55-900 kW

Oil-injected screw compressors

5-500 kW

Turbo compressors

500-2500 kW

Matching air treatment equipment

Dryers,filters,drains,separators,etc

ES – energy saving central controllers

Optimization, monitoring, control


Energy efficiency in compressed air systems

18 kW

55 kW

750 kW

Energy Savings

Atlas Copco has all the technologies available

Specific energy J/l (Hp/cfm)

scroll

tooth

centrifugal

screw

Power (flow)

Appropriate selection can save a lot of energy


System design innovations in screw elements

System design : innovations in screw elements

Specific Energy (J/l , Hp/cfm)

11kW

22kW

30kW

55kW

90kW

132kW

200kW

300kW

3-5%

3%

5-6%

1

10 (21.2)

100 (212)

1000 (2,120)

FAD l/s (cfm)

2008

1995 - 2003

2000 - 2006

Before 1990


The energy circle2

Customer needs

Superior solutions

The Energy Circle

demand

assessment

energy recovery

core

technology

optimizationof the room

drive

technology

energy saving accessories


Energy efficiency in compressed air systems

Typical air demand pattern

l/s

Monday

Tuesday

Wednesday

250

Thursday

Friday

200

Saturday

Sunday

150

100

Average use 50%

50

hour

Energy Savings

Measurement and simulation tools are available to calculate precise energy savings in a real environment


Energy savings with vsd

Excess energy

Loaded pressure

Unloaded system pressure

T

time

Theory

Actual

T- time for complete system venting

Energy savings with VSD

Power consumption during transition from load to no load with traditional regulation


Energy efficiency in compressed air systems

~80%

Energy savings with VSD

Power consumption during transition from load to no load with traditional regulation vs. VSD

Power consumption GA45 L-NL at 50%

50

40

VSD

30

kW

20

10

0

0

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

160

180

200

220

240

260

seconds


Energy cost per m3 of air at 7 bar e 100 psig

18 Kw

55 Kw

750 Kw

Energy cost per m3 of air at 7 bar(e) (100 psig)

VSD technology can save up to 35% of energy

$/M3

Specific energy J/L or $/M3

scroll

tooth

centrifugal

screw

Flow m3 / min

VSD – Variable speed drives


Our commitment to vsd technology

Company A

Company B

Company C

Company D

Company E

Others : mainly promoting free-standing

Atlas Copco

Widest integrated VSD range (from 7.5 to 900 KW)

Our commitment to VSD technology

750

250

0

1000 kW

500


The energy circle3

Customer needs

Superior solutions

The Energy Circle

demand

assessment

energy recovery

core

technology

optimizationof the room

drive

technology

energy saving accessories


Energy efficiency in compressed air systems

Efficiency – Air quality

MD and XD dryers – energy-less air drying

  • Heat of compression is used for drying

  • No external energy or purge is required

  • Very low pressure drops

Energy savings between 5 and 20% are possible !


Dryer energy consumption 20 o c 4 f pdp

Dryer energy consumption (-20oC, -4°F PDP)

% of compressor power

Type of dryer


The energy circle4

Customer needs

Superior solutions

The Energy Circle

demand

assessment

energy recovery

core

technology

optimizationof the room

drive

technology

energy saving accessories


Energy efficiency in compressed air systems

com-pressor 4

com-pressor 3

com-pressor 2

com-pressor 1

PRESSURE BAND CASCADE

CENTRAL CONTROL

LOCAL CONTROL

Net pressure

Average pressure

Required minimum pressure

Time

HIGH COSTS

LOW COSTS

Energy savings through optimization

  • ES controls the net pressure

    • Net pressure is guaranteed while compressors run at lowest required pressure

  • Lower pressure by 1 bar reduces energy by 7%


Automatic selection of best size compressor

Pressure

Time

Pressure

Time

Automatic selection of “Best Size” compressor

Big compressor

  • Net pressure drops fast

  • Net pressure drops slowly

Small compressor


Optimization of vsd compressors

ES optimization

VSD 2: ~50%

VSD 2: 50%

Flow

Flow

SER (J/l)

VSD 1

VSD 2

Flow (l/s)

Time

Time

Optimization of VSD compressors

Local control

VSD 2: ~ 70%

Efficient?

VSD 1: 30%

VSD 1

VSD 2

SER (J/l)

Flow (l/s)


Optimization of turbo s and vsd

ES optimization

VSD 2: 50%

Turbo 2: 80%

(blow-off 0%)

Turbo 1: 100%

(blow-off 0%)

SER (J/l)

Turbo 2

Turbo 1

Blow-off

Flow

Flow

VSD

SER (J/l)

Flow (l/s)

Time

Time

Optimization of Turbo’s and VSD

Local control

VSD 2: 90%

Turbo 2: 50%

(blow-off ~20%)

Efficient?

Turbo 1: 100%

(blow-off 0%)

Turbo 2

SER (J/l)

Turbo 1

Blow-off

…..

…..

SER (J/l)

VSD

Flow (l/s)


Carbon zero the unique approach

Carbon ZeroThe unique approach

The new milestone

‘Carbon Zero’

“net zero energy”

Recovery

demand

assessment

optimizationof the room

core

technology

efficient air treatment

drive

technology


Measured parameters t v test

Measured parameters TÜV test


Energy efficiency in compressed air systems

Type test of ZR 55-750 range with built-in energy recovery systems

Comparison of the electrical energy consumption with heat energy recovered

  • Certified results

  • “100% of the electrical energy consumed could be recovered”

  • “ net power (energy) consumption of the ZR compressor with built-in energy recovery at specific design conditions is zero”


Introducing carbon zero

Introducing Carbon Zero

Result – Net Zero energy consumption

10% losses in radiation, etc.

100%

Electrical energy input converted to heat

Direct energy recovery 90%

102

Energy in atmospheric air (latent heat)

Atmospheric energy 12%

15%

Released due to condensation in coolers


Carbon zero principal build up zr energy recovery

Carbon Zero principal build-upZR Energy recovery

Recovered energy at 10 bar(e) (145 psig)

LP element

9%

HP element

12%

Oil cooler

Intercooler

37%

Aftercooler

42%

Thermostatic valve

ZR Energy recovery

20-40°C (68-104°F)

70-90°C (158-194°F)

ER control unit

Water circuit


Components of the energy recovery systems

Components of the energy recovery systems

Heat consumer

Secondary cooling

water system

T

H

H

ZR

H

H

T

H

H

H

PI

TI

H

H

Control unit scope is within the dashed line. Outside is customer’s scope.


What makes zr compressor unique

What makes ZR compressor unique

  • Compared to oil-injected screws

    • ZR compressors have much higher temperatures due to which they can recover 100% of the electrical energy as heat, under design conditions. Watercooled OIS can recover +/- 70%

  • Compared to turbos

    • Lower temperatures in turbos restrict energy recovery severely

    • Interstage energy recovery can create instability

    • At reasonable temperatures energy recovery is 30-35%

  • Compared to other oil-free screws

    • Others are not recovering energy from oil coolers and jackets, thus losing 20-25%. So energy recovery with competitors OFS could be at best 80%


Applications

Showers

Space heating

Boiler feed

Applications


Some high level steam applications

Some high level steam applications


Example of savings with carbon zero

Example of savings with Carbon Zero

Consider a ZR132 kW compressor and an energy recovery of 135 kW

Heat equivalent per second = 135 kJ/s

When using heating oil (HO)

Calorific value = 41,200 kJ/l

Boiler efficiency = 70% without recovery and 90% with recovery

Heat generated per hour = 135 kJ/s x 3600

Fuel saved = 135 x 3600 / (41,200 x 0.9) = 13 l/h = 3.4 gal/h

Cost of fuel = 0.5€/l x 13 l/h = 6.50 €/h = 8 $/h

Yearly savings = 6.5€ x 8000 h/y = 52,000 € per year = $ 64,000 per year* Calculation based on full load running for 8000 hours – full potential


Carbon zero zr range

Carbon Zero ZR range

10.4 bar(e) 151 psig

ZR 55 – ZR 750

ZR 75 VSD – ZR 700 VSD

4 bar(e) 58 psig

270 m³/h

7,470 m³/h

159 cfm

4,387 cfm


Conclusions energy efficiency in cas

Conclusions: Energy Efficiency in CAS

Atlas Copco approach

  • Reducing air leaks

    • Ultrasonic leak detection

  • Overall system design

    • System audits and simulation

    • Optimal compression technologies

    • Control and ancillary systems

  • Use of adjustable speed drives (ASD)

    • Variable Speed Drives

  • Recovery of waste heat

    • Carbon Zero compressors recover up to 100%


Energy efficiency in compressed air systems

Committed tosustainable productivity.


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