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Bruce A. Bracken, PhD. About the Author. Bruce A. Bracken, PhD Professor The College of William & Mary School of Education P.O. Box 8795 Williamsburg, VA 23187-8795 757.221.1712 [email protected] http://babrac.people.wm.edu/. Presentation Outline.

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About the Author

Bruce A. Bracken, PhD

Professor

The College of William & Mary

School of Education

P.O. Box 8795

Williamsburg, VA 23187-8795

757.221.1712

[email protected]

http://babrac.people.wm.edu/

presentation outline
Presentation Outline

Multidimensional Adjustment and Assessment of Students’ Interpersonal Relations

Clinical Assessment of Interpersonal Relations (CAIR)

  • Development Goals
  • Key Features
  • Description: Scales, Support Model, Relationship Characteristics
  • Norm Characteristics and Technical Adequacy
  • Administration and Scoring
  • Interpretation
  • Case Study
multifaceted nature of adjustment
Multifaceted Nature of Adjustment
  • Multidimensional, context-dependent model of adjustment, with six primary life domains:
  • Three intra-personal domains
    • Affect
    • Competence
    • Physical
  • Three interpersonal domains
    • Social
    • Academic
    • Family
developmental nature of psychosocial adjustment
Developmental Nature of PsychosocialAdjustment
  • Adjustment becomes increasingly differentiated with age
  • Life domains differentiate as a function of exposure
assessment triangulation
AssessmentTriangulation

Other Sources- Direct Observation - Indirect Approaches (e.g., Projective Techniques) - Background Information - Clinical Interview

Behavioral and Psychosocial

Adjustment

Third-Party Report- CAB Parent/Teacher Social Skills Scale

- Sociometry

Self-Report

- Clinical Assessment of Interpersonal Relations

cair features
CAIR Features
  • Self-report (student completed)
  • Ages 9 to 19 years
  • Third grade reading level
  • 35 items repeated on each of five scales
  • • Male Peers, Female Peers • Mother, Father • Teacher
  • Reflects three interpersonal domains
    • Social
    • Family
    • Academic
cair features1
CAIR Features
  • Twenty - minute completion time
  • Theoretically based
    • Four dimensions of relationship support
    • Fifteen relationship characteristics
  • Allows for prorating
    • Single-parent situations
    • Skipped Items
  • Norm-referenced and Ipsative interpretation options
  • Mandatory element of Emotional Disturbance diagnosis
cair features2
CAIR Features
  • Uses a Four-point Item response format
      • Strongly Agree
      • Agree
      • Disagree
      • Strongly Disagree
  • Provides score reporting consistent with CAB, CAD, CAT and most personality tests
      • Standard scores (T-scores)
      • Percentile ranks
      • Confidence intervals
      • Qualitative classifications
      • Graphical profile display
interpersonal relations defined
DEFINITION

“The unique and relatively stable behavioral pattern that exists or develops between two people as a result of individual and extra-individual influences.”

INTERPERSONAL SUPPORT

• Esteem Support

• Informational Support

• Instrumental Support

• Social Support

15 RELATIONSHIP CHARACTERISTICS

• Companionship

• Emotional Support

• Guidance

• Emotional Comfort

• Reliance

• Understanding

• Conflict Resolution

• Identification

• Respect

• Empathy

• Intimacy

• Affect

• Acceptance

• Shared Values

INTERPERSONAL RELATIONS DEFINED
serious emotional disturbance defined
Serious Emotional Disturbance Defined

Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), Public Law 101-476 defines SED as: “…one or more of the following characteristicsover a long period of time and to a marked degree that adversely affectseducational performance–

(A) An inability to learn that cannot be explained by intellectual,sensory, or health factors;

(B) An inability to build or maintain satisfactory interpersonalrelationships with peers and teachers;

(C) Inappropriate types of behavior or feelings under normal circumstances;

(D) A general pervasive mood of unhappiness or depression;

(E) A tendency to develop physical symptoms or fears associated withpersonal or school problems."

item construction considerations
Item ConstructionConsiderations
  • Self-report measure of students’ perceptions of relationship qualities using Likert format
  • Four-point forced-choice scale to avoid noncommittal responses
  • Consistent item format for all five scales
  • Both positively and negatively connoted conditions depicted
  • Simple language, third-grade reading level
item construction considerations1
Item ConstructionConsiderations

6. Items reflect 15 core relationship qualities

7. Item content universal to all 9 – 19 year-olds

8. Non-timed instrument

9. CAIR can be administered by paraprofessionals, but must be interpreted by professionals

10. Items collectively sample the universe of content and contexts associated with relationships

psychiatric conditions related to interpersonal relations
Adjustment Disorder - with Anxiety - with Conduct Disturbance

Antisocial Personality

Attention Deficit Disorder

Autistic Disorder

Avoidant Disorder

Avoidant Personality

Body Dysmorphic Disorder

Borderline Personality

Childhood Disintegrative Disorder

Communication Disorder

Conduct Disorder

Delusional Disorder

Depression

Psychiatric Conditions Related to Interpersonal Relations
psychiatric conditions related to interpersonal relations1
Dysthymic Disorder

Histrionic Personality

Identity Disorder

Intermittent Explosive Disorder

Learning Disorders

Narcissistic Personality

Oppositional Defiant Disorder

Paranoid Personality

Pervasive Developmental Disorder

Schizoid Personality

Schizophrenia

Schizotypal Disorder

Sexual Disorders

Social Phobia

Specific Phobias

Psychiatric Conditions Related to Interpersonal Relations
behavioral correlates of interpersonal relations
Behavioral Correlates of Interpersonal Relations
  • Adolescent and adult psychosocial adjustment(Parker & Asher, 1987)
  • Future sex role development(Fagot, 1977)
  • Expression of intimacy(Buhrmester, 1990)
  • Moral development(Berndt, McCartney, Caparulo, & Moore, 1984)
  • Emotional security and understanding of the social structure (Panella, Cooper, & Henggeler, 1982)
  • Childhood and adolescent aggression(Dodge, Coie, & Brakke, 1982; Hartup, 1979)
behavioral correlates of interpersonal relations1
Behavioral Correlates of Interpersonal Relations
  • Juvenile crime(Parker & Asher, 1987)
  • Risk of dropping out of school(Elliott & Voss, 1974)
  • Behavioral disturbance(Panella & Henggeler, 1986)
  • Learning disabilities(Bryan, 1974, 1982; Dishion, 1990)
  • Mentally retardation (Gottlieb, Semmel, & Veldman, 1978)
  • Social isolation(Wanlass & Prinz, 1982)
  • Bad conduct discharge from the military(Roff, 1961)
  • Emotional Disturbance (IDEA)
intra individual factors related to interpersonal relations
Intra-individual Factors Related to Interpersonal Relations
  • Position in birth order(Schacter, 1964: Sells & Roff, 1964)
  • Parents\' style of nurturance and providing care(Baumrind, 1967, 1971; Hinde & Tamplin, 1983; MacDonald & Parke, 1984)
  • Parental mental health(Becker, Peterson, Hellmer, Shoemaker, & Quay, 1959; Forehand, Long, Brody, & Fauber, 1986; Glueck & Glueck, 1950; Maccoby & Martin, 1983, 1990; Phares & Compas, 1992)
  • Marital conflict and divorce between parents(Emery, 1982; Gottman & Katz, 1989; Grych & Fincham, 1992; Hetherington, 1979; McCord, McCord, & Thurber, 1962)
  • Parent-child conflict(Montemayor, 1982)
  • Physical or sexual abuse or maltreatment(George & Main, 1979; Kinard, 1980; Reidy, 1977)
inter individual factors related to interpersonal relations
Inter-individual Factors Related to Interpersonal Relations
  • Physical attractiveness (Cavoir & Dokecki, 1973; Dion & Berscheid, 1974; Kennedy, 1990; Langlois & Downs, 1979)
  • Physical health(Lotyczewski, Cowen, & Weissberg, 1986)
  • Unusualness of the child\'s name(McDavid & Farari, 1966)
  • Ability to express humor(McGhee, 1980)
  • Perceived social competence(Gresham & Elliott, 1989)
technical quality
Technical Quality
  • Norms
  • Reliability
    • Internal Consistency
    • Stability
  • Validity
    • Content Validity
    • Developmental Validation
    • Construct Validity
    • Contrasted Groups Validity
    • Independent Research Efforts
standardization sample1
Standardization Sample

Sample Sample Sample United States

Characteristic Size Percentage* Percentage

U.S. Region

Northeast 173 6.93 20.20

South 1310 52.50 35.00

North Central 563 22.57 23.90

West 449 17.99 20.90

* Percentages are computed on the number of cases coded, with missing data omitted from calculations. Total sample size = 2501 subjects.

u s and cair family constellations
U.S. and CAIRFamily Constellations

Family U.S. CAIR

TypePopulation Sample

Intact Family 65% 57%

Foster Home 1% 1%

Reconstituted 10% 14%

Single-Parent 22% 17%

CAIR Sample does not sum to 100% due to unreported data. Single-parent families may be due to never married, separation, divorce, or death of parent.

construct validity factor analysis
Construct Validity:Factor Analysis

Factor One:

Father Scale

Factor Three:

Mother Scale

construct validity factor analysis1
Construct Validity:Factor Analysis

Factor Four:

Male Peers Scale

Factor Five:

Female Peers Scale

Two Items with Primary

(non-significant) Loadings

on Teachers’ Scale

construct validity factor analysis2
Construct Validity:Factor Analysis

Factor Two:

Teachers Scale

summary of independent cair research
Summary of Independent CAIR Research

Clinic Samples:

  • Poorer relations on all scales; diminished self-concepts

Runaways:

  • Poorer Mother, Father, Teacher relations; exaggerated opposite-sex Peer relations

Delinquents:

  • Poorer Mother relations; 81.5% classification rate; 88.4% non-delinquent classification rate

Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual Adolescents:

  • Poorer Mother, Father, Male and Female Peer relations

Parenting Style:

  • Students with Authoritative Mothers reported better Mother relations than students with Authoritarian or Permissive Mothers
clinical interpretation
Clinical Interpretation

Quantitative and Qualitative Interpretation Process

5-Step Interpretation Process

  • Consider CAIR total scale score (i.e., Total Relationship Index)
  • Consider CAIR scale scores individually and in combination
  • Compare scale scores with data acquired from different sources (e.g., sociometry, CAB Social Skills)
  • Explore 15 relationship characteristics
  • Contrast student’s performance on the CAIR in light of other available information (e.g., referral, background)
cair relationship classifications
CAIR Relationship Classifications

CAIR Relationships are classified by descriptive categories related to degree of relationship strength or weakness

> 70 = Significant Relationship Strength

60 to 69 = Mild Relationship Strength

40 to 59 = Normal Range

30 to 39 = Mild Relationship Weakness

< 29 = Significant Relationship Weakness

ipsative interpretation deviations from average scale score
Ipsative Interpretation:Deviations from Average Scale Score

Scale p < .05 p < .01

Mother 8 9

Father 7 9

Male Peers 8 10

Female Peers 8 10

Teacher 9 11

ipsative interpretation example
Ipsative Interpretation:Example

CAIR Scale Mean Ipsative

Scale Score d Classification

Mother 69 +10 Strength

Father 53 -6 Weakness

Male Peers 40 -19 Weakness

Female Peers 62 +3 Average

Teacher 69 +10 Strength

Mean Score 59

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