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Education in Post-Conflict Zones. Patrick Fine, DAA/AFR. 22 September, 2005. Democratic Republic of the Congo. Classrooms before reconstruction. Democratic Republic of the Congo. Classrooms after reconstruction. Mozambique. Students in a school built by USAID after the war. Afghanistan.

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education in post conflict zones

Education in Post-Conflict Zones

Patrick Fine, DAA/AFR

22 September, 2005

slide2

Democratic Republic of the Congo

Classrooms before reconstruction.

slide3

Democratic Republic of the Congo

Classrooms after reconstruction.

slide4

Mozambique

Students in a school built by USAID after the war.

slide5

Afghanistan

Girls in a new school.

slide6

Afghanistan

Building a new school in Herat.

slide7

Afghanistan

Students at the newly built Ramack High School.

slide8

Afghanistan

A temporary tent classroom in Konduz.

slide9

Senegal

Enthusiastic students at Ecole Lyndiane, a school in the capital of the Casamance region.

slide10

Senegal

Ecole Lyndiane was overrun by rebels and government soldiers during the war, since there was an army post next door.

slide11

Senegal

Since 2001, USAID has assisted Ecole Lyndiane and it is now one of the best schools in the area.

slide12

Sierra Leone

Much of Sierra Leone’s education infrastructure was shattered during the war.

slide13

Sierra Leone

USAID has been working to rebuild schools in the areas most hard hit.

slide14

Sierra Leone

Students and their teacher at a newly reconstructed school in Koindu.

slide15

Sierra Leone

A headmaster in front of his new secondary school in Koindu.

slide16

Sudan

Schools in southern Sudan are virtually nonexistent.

slide17

Sudan

Most students, such as these in the Equatoria region, do not have environments conducive to learning.

slide18

Uganda

Large numbers of children in northern Uganda attend school in the camps for internally displaced persons where they live.

slide19

Uganda

These students attend school in the Kitgum camp for IDPs.

slide20

Uganda

Class size is often extremely high.

slide21

Uganda

Most of the children live in fear of being abducted by rebel groups.

slide22

Immediate Needs – Focus on Restoring Order

Re-establish order/routine in a community

Provide care for younger children/control older children

Provide food through school feeding

Extend the reach of the government

Characteristics:

Externally financed/organized

Can have important symbolic and political effect due to high visibility

More to do with restoring order than educating kids

Uses emergency structures

Tents/schools under trees

May have limited connection to formal system

Donors fairly coordinated

slide23
Reconstruction Phase – Focus on Access
      • Build/reconstruct schools
      • Distribution of simple learning materials
        • use or slightly modified textbooks
      • Use of unqualified teachers to staff schools
      • Use of alternative approaches
        • Radio instruction and teacher training
        • NFE/community based schooling
        • Literacy classes

Characteristics:

    • Mostly externally financed
    • Combination of external and local leadership/organization
    • Uses existing institutional structures
    • Less donor coordination as scope of interventions grows
slide24
Capacity Building Phase – Focus shifts to Quality
      • Institutional Issues Begin to Supplant Access
        • Effectiveness/mngt. of Ministry of Education
        • Training for teachers/Ministry staff
      • Concern with Whether kids in school are learning
        • Curriculum issues come into focus
          • New content in texts – (what texts says becomes more important than simply having texts)
          • promotion of democracy, human rights, women’s rights, tolerance, etc.
        • Relevence of what is taught economic life
          • Vocational skills

Characteristics:

    • Mostly externally financed, increasing local leadership
    • Increased formalization
slide25
Some Issues
    • What standards for buildings, textbooks, teacher qualifications, etc. should be adopted? How should these be set?
    • At what point should local sustainability become a central issue? How can sustainability be balanced against the need for immediate response?
    • How can local leadership be balanced with lack of skills/capacity and need for extensive planning, procurements, organization, and supervision?
    • How can national planners/implementers ensure community participation/ownership?
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