A Glimpse of the History of Mathematics (1). Mathematics Education. Mathematics and Civilizations. The history of mathematics is interwoven with the history of human civilization.
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Mathematics Education
Mathematics and Civilizations
Mathematics Education
Mathematics and Civilizations
Mathematics Education
A Glimpse of the History of Mathematics (3)
Counting was carried out long before the dawn of any civilization. But mere counting (i.e., early counting of the prehistoric period) is no mathematics.
Once we accept this, the origin of the first mathematics can be traced back to some 5000 years or so.
"Mathematics began with the creation or invention of number symbols or numerals.”
Mathematics Education
A Glimpse of the History of Mathematics (4)
‘Mathematics is a European invention’
Mathematics Education
A Glimpse of the History of Mathematics (5)
‘Mathematics is a European invention’
Even simple arithmetical operations were not known or could not be performed in the European number system before the introduction of the Hindu-Arabic decimal system some 1000 years ago.
Mathematics Education
A Glimpse of the History of Mathematics (6)
‘Mathematics is a European invention’
Eurocentric chronology of mathematics history.
Modified Eurocentric chronology of mathematics history.
Mathematics Education
A Glimpse of the History of Mathematics (7)
The Ancient World(1)
Babylonian Mathematics
The Babylonian civilization replaced that of the Sumerians from around 2000 BC. So, Babylonian Mathematics, inherited from the Sumerians, cannot be older than that of Sumerian mathematics. Counting in Sumerian civilization was based on a sexagesimal system, that is to say base 60. It was a positional system one of the greatest achievement in the development of the number system Babylonians used only two symbols to produce their base 60 positional system.
Number names, number symbols, arithmetical computations, traditional decimal notation go back to the origin of Chinese writing.
The number system which was used to express this numerical information was based on the decimal system and was both additive and multiplicative in nature.
Mathematics Education
A Glimpse of the History of Mathematics (8)
The Ancient World(2)
Chinese Mathematics
Mathematics Education
A Glimpse of the History of Mathematics (9)
The Ancient World (3)
Egyptian Mathematics
About 3000 BC the Egyptians developed their hieroglyphic writing (picture writing) to write numerals This was a base 10 system without a zero symbol. It was not a place value system. The numerals are formed by putting together the basic symbols .
The Egyptian number systems were not well suited for arithmetical calculations.
Mathematics Education
A Glimpse of the History of Mathematics (10)
The Ancient World(4)
The evidence of the first use of mathematics in the Indian subcontinent was found in the Indus valley and dates back to at least 3000 BC. Excavations at Mohenjodaro and Harrapa, and the surrounding area of the Indus River, have uncovered much evidence of the use of basic mathematics. The maths used by this early Harrapan civilization was very much for practical means, and was primarily concerned with weights, measuring scales and a surprisingly advanced 'brick technology', (which utilized ratios). The ratio for brick dimensions 4:2:1 is even today considered optimal for effective bonding
Mathematics Education
A Glimpse of the History of Mathematics (11)
The Ancient World (5)
Hindu Mathematics
(?)
Mathematics Education
A Glimpse of the History of Mathematics (12)
‘Mathematics is a Hindu creation’
Nepalese Mathematics (1)
Mathematics Education
A Glimpse of the History of Mathematics (13)
The Ancient World (6)
Record written in Bramhi and Nepal Bhasa (Bhujimol) scripts and in the brick found while reconstructing the Dhando Stupa at Chabahil (Kathmandu) 2003 testifies that counting numbers were used in Nepal as early as 3rd century B.C.
The Lichhavian numerals used in the beginning of the last millennium is both additive and multiplicative. It was decimal in nature. There exists a complete analogy between the Lichhavian number system and the 14th Century B.C. Chinese system both in form and technique of writing numbers using numerals.
Nepalese Mathematics (2)
Mathematics Education
A Glimpse of the History of Mathematics (14)
The Ancient World (6)
The extremely artistic ways of writing numerals together with the various shaped objects placed symmetrically or asymmetrically in the ancient temples of Nepal do show that Nepalese people had not only the knowledge of various geometric shapes (supposed to have been discovered by Westerners) but also their practical use long long ago. They further show their skill in measurement and power of reproduction of congruent copies.
Mathematics Education
A Glimpse of the History of Mathematics (15)
Medieval Mathematics (1)
(320 – 1660 AD)
Britain and European Mathematics
The collapse of Rome and the general chaos that followed has no great advancements in the mathematical community in it.. The Dark ages and then the Middle Ages were upon the land and civilization let alone the science of mathematics was having trouble surviving the times.
Schools were reduced tolittle or no arithmetic, it is doubtful whether few knew more than basic counting and finger reckoning.
Mathematics Education
A Glimpse of the History of Mathematics (16)
Medieval Mathematics (2)
(320 – 1660 AD)
Mathematics Education
A Glimpse of the History of Mathematics (17)
Medieval Mathematics (3)
(320 – 1660 AD)
Mathematics Education
A Glimpse of the History of Mathematics (18)
Medieval Mathematics (4)
(320 –1660 AD)
Mathematics Education
A Glimpse of the History of Mathematics (19)
In England, Robert Recorde wrote what is thought to be the first series of textbooks in English. These were not intended for the highly educated mathematician but for the common man seeking to improve his understanding of such subjects as the Hindu-Arabic numeral system, conversions between weights and coins, computation with counters which would aid their work in trade and commerce
The quality and the quantity of teaching still varied hugely, and a significant number of students entering Oxford and Cambridge in the 1630's still had no prior knowledge of the Hindu-Arabic numeral system
Mathematics Education
A Glimpse of the History of Mathematics (20)
Renaissance Mathematics(2)
Once the European community based their study, research and application on the Hindu-Arabic Number System, their contributions to the theory and application of mathematics grew tremendously during the latter part of the seventeenth century.
During the same period, worldwide usage of the Hindu-Arabic number system proved to be a boon for both mathematics and the whole of human society.
Progress towards the calculus continued with Fermat, who, together with Pascal, began the mathematical study of probability. However the calculus was to be the topic of most significance to evolve in the 17th Century
Mathematics Education
A Glimpse of the History of Mathematics (21)
18th – 19th Centuries (1)
Mathematics Education
A Glimpse of the History of Mathematics (22)
18th – 19th Centuries (2)
Mathematics Education
A Glimpse of the History of Mathematics (23)
18th – 19th Centuries (3)
Mathematics Education
A Glimpse of the History of Mathematics (24)
18th – 19th Centuries (4)
Mathematics Education
A Glimpse of the History of Mathematics (25)
18th – 19th Centuries (5)
Mathematics Education
A Glimpse of the History of Mathematics (26)
18th – 19th Centuries (6)
Mathematics Education
A Glimpse of the History of Mathematics (27)
Some Numerals of the World (1)
The number system employed throughout the greater part of the world today was probably developed in India, but because it was the Arabs who transmitted this system to the West the numerals it uses have come to be called Arabic ( Hindu-Arabic) .
Mathematics Education
A Glimpse of the History of Mathematics (28)
Some Numerals of the World (2)
Roman Numerals:
I = 1, V = 5, X = 10, L = 50, C = 100, D = 500 and M = 1000
Brahmi Numerals:
Mathematics Education
A Glimpse of the History of Mathematics (29)
Some Numerals of the World (3)
Until 771, the Egyptian, Greek, and other cultures used their own numerals in a manner similar to that of the Romans.
Thus the number 323 was expressed like this:
Egyptian : 999 nn III ,
Greek : HHH ÆÆ III ,
Roman : CCC XX III
Mathematics Education
A Glimpse of the History of Mathematics (30)
Some Numerals of the World (4)
Mathematics Education
A Glimpse of the History of Mathematics (31)
Some Numerals of the World (5)
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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Some Numerals used in India
Some Numerals used in Nepal
Mathematics Education
A Glimpse of the History of Mathematics (32)
Some Numerals of the World (6)
Ancient Chinese Lichchavian
Mathematics Education
A Glimpse of the History of Mathematics (33)
Some Numerals of the World (7)
An Inscribed Statue of the Year 207 From Maligaon, Kathmandu
Rajbanshi Castro/GabiniSamvat Samvat107 207100 200 7 7 4 4
Translation of Castro and Garbini
'Of the great king Jayavarma, on the fourth day of the seventh (?) fortnight of summer, in the year 207'.
According to Rajbanshi the year is 107
Mathematics Education
A Glimpse of the History of Mathematics (34)
Some Numerals of the World (8)
Some Conflicting Interpretations of Inscribed Numerals of Ancient Nepal
Fabrication of Nepal’s History
END OF PART ONE