Developments in transportation system networks
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Developments in Transportation System Networks. November 2009. Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS). Term generally applied to technology used to reduce congestion and improve safety in transport – most often road transport Not a new idea – has been around since 1960s

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Intelligent transport systems its
Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS)

  • Term generally applied to technology used to reduce congestion and improve safety in transport – most often road transport

  • Not a new idea – has been around since 1960s

    • Variable-message signs in use since 1960s

    • SCATS, SCOOT, TRAC traffic light control developed in 1970s (and still in use today)

    • Intelligent transport society of America founded in 1991

    • Intelligent transportation systems given radio spectrum spot by FCC in 1999 – Dedicated Short Range Communication (DSRC)

Convergence onto ip ethernet
Convergence onto IP/Ethernet

  • During the 2000s, the elements of ITS have amalgamated onto a single communication system for

    • CCTV

    • VoIP

    • Variable sign control

    • On-ramp metering

    • Toll-booth systems

    • Microwave vehicle detection systems

    • Even bridge movement detection

Active traffic management
Active traffic management

  • Integrated data and coordinated access to signs/controls enables the following actions dynamically in response to conditions

    • Speed control

    • Route control

    • Quickly clearing traffic out of lanes

    • Opening outer lane

    • Turning on-ramp controls on/off

Next step communicate with the vehicle
Next step - Communicate with the vehicle

  • Current methods communicate with the driver

  • Aimed mostly at congestion reduction

  • Now the scope is broadening to take in safety

  • To make serious safety gains, it is necessary to communicate with the vehicle

  • Machines can react more quickly than people

Vehicle communications
Vehicle communications

  • Vehicle to Vehicle (V2V)

    • vehicles to be informed of braking action of vehicles in front

    • vehicles warn oncoming traffic of icy patches.

    • emergency vehicles alert other vehicles of their approach

    • awareness of vehicles in ‘blind spot’

  • Vehicle to Infrastructure (V2I)

    • infotainment

    • Navigation

    • Internet Access

The car as a lan
The Car as a LAN

  • Low-speed data buses between electronic components being replaced by ethernet

  • Driven by software upload times in repair shops

  • Ethernet-connected entertainment devices installed

  • Ethernet for external communication

  • Mobile ip evolution
    Mobile IP evolution

    • Mobile IPv4 – RFC 2002 (1996)

      • Defined Mobile Node, Home Agent, Foreign Agent, Home Address, Care-of Address

      • Mobile node’s data tunnelled between Foreign Agent and Home Agent

      • Protocol details refined in later RFCs

    • Mobile IPv6 – RFC 3775 (2004)

      • No need for foreign agent

      • No IP-in-IP encapsulation – uses IPv6 extension headers

      • Supports ‘route optimization’ – direct communication no via home network

      • Uses inherent security headers

    • IPv6 provides superior mobility solution to IPv4

    Mobile ip evolution cont
    Mobile IP evolution cont.

    • NEMO – RFC 3963 (2005)

      • Mobility for whole subnets, not just individual hosts – hence NEtwork MObility

      • Does not support route optimization

      • Does support nesting of mobile subnets

    • Suitable protocol for the V2I communication of In-car LANs

    Nemo problems to be solved
    NEMO – problems to be solved

    • Handover latency

      • Acquiring new address in new foreign network

      • Re-establishing connection with home agent

    • Routing inefficiency and Extension header overheads

      • Required to communicate via home network

      • Extreme case – aeroplane moving a network 1000s of miles

      • Need to introduce route optimization

    • IPSec overheads

      • Move to certificate-based key negotiation

    Layer 1 and layer 2 communications
    Layer-1 and Layer-2 communications

    • IEEE 802.11 Task Group p has developed 802.11p – known as Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments (WAVE)

      • Supports rapidly changing environment

      • Provides fast connection establishment

        • No need to agree on SSID, just use a wildcard

      • Uses DSRC spectrum

      • Developed with road safety applications as primary goal

      • Acceptance that carrying commercial services required to speed uptake


    • Vehicular ad-hoc Networks

      • Groups of vehicles forming adhoc connections using 802.11p

      • V2V and V2I connections

    Geographic routing geonet
    Geographic routing - GeoNet

    • Geographic routing applied specifically to VANETs

    • Uses the geographic position and movement information of vehicles to route data packets.

    • Each node maintains a location table including location related information for itself and a list of its neighbouring nodes.

    • Position information, including speed and direction, exchanged in beacon packets

    • Forwarding uses Greedy Perimeter Stateless Routing (GPSR) protocol

    Geonet cont
    GeoNet cont.

    • Communication modes:

    • GeoUnicast – from a node to a known location

    • GeoAnyCast – from a node to any node in a geographic area

    • GeoBroadCast – from a node to all nodes in a geographic area

    • Topo-Broadcast – from a node to all nodes a given number of hops away

    Security challenge
    Security challenge

    • Inter-vehicle communications must be secure

      • Hackers could cause severe problems

      • Communication relayed through intermediate vehicles requires privacy

    • But very challenging environment for security

      • Require fast inter-vehicle connection establishment

      • Vehicles must collaborate to forward traffic

      • Very little knowledge of neighbouring nodes

      • Not guaranteed access to PKI certificate authorities


    • If vehicles are too easily identified, they can be tracked, for malign purposes

    • Need to use multiple certificates, and swap between certificates at random intervals

    • Need to generate multiple IPv6 addresses, and swap between certificates at random intervals

    Active bodies
    Active bodies

    • C2C-CC – Car to Car Communication Consortium

    • non-profit organisation initiated by six European car manufacturers aiming to develop a open industrial standard for inter-vehicle communication

    • CVIS – Cooperative Vehicle Infrastructure Systems

    • consortium of 60 vehicle and parts manufacturers, universities, research institutes, national road administrations. To develop standards and components for V2V and V2I communications

    • SeVeCom – Secure Vehiclar Communications

    • EU-funded project that focuses on providing a full definition and implementation of security requirements for vehicular communications.

    Active bodies cont
    Active bodies – cont.

    • JARI - Japan Automobile Research Institute

    • IETF, ETSI, ITU, IEEE, ISO, etc

    • ISO working Group – CALM – Continuous Air-Interface Long and Medium range

    • Defining protocols, management interfaces, interoperability, for V2V and V2I communications over a variety of media