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Chapter 36. THE COLD WAR BEGINS. I. Postwar Economic Anxieties. After 13 years of Depression and 4 of economic prosperity-anxiety over return to Depression Taft-Hartley Act -outlawed closed union shop, made unions liable for damages, and required non communist oaths from union leaders.

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Chapter 36

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Chapter 36


I. Postwar Economic Anxieties

  • After 13 years of Depression and 4 of economic prosperity-anxiety over return to Depression

  • Taft-Hartley Act

    -outlawed closed union shop, made unions

    liable for damages, and required non communist oaths from union leaders

C) Operation Dixie-goal of unionizing Southern workers failed because of fears of racial mixing

D) Employment Act of 1946-promote maximum production, employment and purchasing power

E) GI Bill of 1944-generous provisions to send soldiers to school (totaled $14 billion)

F) Veterans Administration-loans for veterans

II. The Long Economic Boom, 1950-1970

  • Economy-increased slowly until 1948

    1950s-1970s=doubled in both decades

    1973-6% of population w/ 40% of wealth

    B) Chicken in every pot to two cars in every garage

    C) Surge of wealth caused increase in American leadership in the world, funded new welfare programs (Medicare) and idea of social mobility

    D) New jobs for women-service industries

III. The Roots of Postwar Prosperity

  • Military Budget (WWII, Korean War, etc…)

  • Cheap Energy costs-gas, air conditioning, etc..

  • Productivity=key to prosperity=increased enrollment in schools (90% by 1970)

  • Agriculture: 1 farmer could feed 50 people by 2000 compared to 1 to 15 in 1945

IV. The Smiling Sunbelt

  • Surge of Population to Sunbelt

    -federal dollars went there

    -people left there for jobs, lower taxes,

    and warmer weather

    -shift of representation

    -decline in rustbelt

V. The Rush to the Suburbs

  • Federal Housing Administration (FHA) and VA made it attractive and convenient own homes

  • New Highways-travel convenient

  • WHITE FLIGHT!-left urban centers black

  • Levittown-NY’s Long Island- cost cutting techniques-single layout homes

VI. The Postwar Baby Boom

  • Baby Boom

    -increased families after WWII

    -child born every 7 seconds at peak

    -influenced decades to come-products and left businesses restructuring

    ie) 34 million pupils in 70s in elementary schools

    ie) Social Security in the future

VII. Truman: The “Gutty” Man from Missouri

  • Uneducated WWI Veteran

    B) Little conference to cocky

    C) “The Buck Stops Here!” sayings

VIII. Yalta: Bargain or Betrayal?

  • USSR to offer free elections in Poland, Romania and Bulgaria (broken)

  • Manchuria to USSR control (sold Chinese)

  • Not set in stone-elastic agreement-test each others’ reactions

IX. The United States and the Soviet Union

  • USA against USSR (16 years to recognize, withheld atomic bomb info, didn’t loan money after WWII)

  • USSR/US Similarities

    -missionary diplomacy, largely isolated before World War II, and distrust of each other’s ideals

    C) USSR-sphere of influence-protect itself from invasion

    D) COLD WAR=4.5 decades of mistrust that influenced the world’s politics

X. Shaping the Postwar World

  • Bretton Woods Conference

    -Western Allies

    -Set up International Monetary Fund

    -Set up World Bank

    B) United Nations

    -Pushed by Roosevelt during war to ensure no war of massive scale

    -Set up in San Francisco as a cooperative organization

    -Prevented wars in Iran, Kashmir, etc..

    -Set up Israel

XI. The Problem of Germany

  • Nuremburg Trials-tried top Nazi officials for war crimes and crimes against humanity

  • Germany and Berlin split into zones given to four powers

  • Iron Curtain-zone dividing East and Western Europe

D) Berlin Airlift

-Soviets cut off road and rail transport to Berlin

-For a year, America airlifted and dropped supplies to West Berliners

-USSR reopened land connections

E) 1949-two German gov’ts established

XII. The Cold War Congeals

  • Containment Doctrine-Geroge F. Kennan-keep Russia (USSR) from expanding

  • Truman Doctrine-provide US aid to all countries willing to fight communism

    -Greece and Turkey given $400 million in


    -put world in pro America or pro Soviet camps

C) Marshall Plan-life giving bait to Europe

-provide aid to European nations

-USSR rejected aid with capitalistic ties linked to it

-$12.5 billion to 16 countries in 4 years

D) Success!!—Euro recovery and Communist parties losing ground in Western Europe

E) Israel-US recognized on 4/14/48—caused US relation problems with Arab countries

XIII. America Begins to Rearm

  • National Security Act of 1947


    -Joints Chief of Staff (leaders of armed forces)

    -National Security Council


    B) Selective Service System


C) North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)

-12 nations signed in 1949

-dramatic departure from previous American policy (alliance!)

XIV. Reconstruction and Revolution

  • General MacArthur ran reconstruction in Japan

    -18 Japanese imprisoned; 7 hanged

    -Japanese saw American democracy good behavior as a way to end American occupation

    B) China

    -1949-Natinonalist gov’t fled to Taiwan and Communist gov’t took over

    -blame game (Republicans attacked Dems)

C) 1949-USSR detonates its own atomic bomb

-Robert Oppenheimer and Einstein warned against H-Bomb to Truman (1000 X more power than atomic bomb)

-US tested one in 1952

-USSR in 1953

XV. Ferreting Out Alleged Communists

  • Loyalty Program-anti Communist sentiments in USA

    -Loyalty Review Board

    -Loyalty Oaths

    -3k federal employees released

    B) House Un-American Activities Committee

    -Richard Nixon (Red Hunter) vs. Alger Hiss

    -Hiss caught in lies-5 years for perjury

    C) Red Hunt-based in reality of gov’t infiltrations and espionage

    -witch hunt in normal America

    D) Julius and Ethel Rosenberg- electrocuted for espionage (only 2 in peacetime)

XVI. Democratic Divisions 1948

  • NY Governor Thomas Dewey (R)

  • Harry Truman (D) after Eisenhower refused

    -Truman-pro Civil Rights

    -J. Strom Thurmond-States Rights for

    Southern Democrat Ticket

    -Truman-Hard With USSR

    -Gorge Wallace-Progressive Party

    C) Chicago Tribune Announces Dewey as Winner

    -Truman won by 3 million popular votes

XVII. The Korean Volcano Erupts

  • Korea divided at 38th Parallel

  • June 25, 1950-N. Korea invaded South Korea

  • Truman=National Security Council Memorandum Number 68-US quadruple its defense spending

  • UN-Declared N.K.’s Actions as aggressor (USSR ABSENT)

  • General MacArthur sent in as US and UN leader for conflict

XVIII. The Military Seesaw in Korea

  • MacArthur-Amphibious Assault behind North Korean’s lines at Inchon

    -many N. Koreans scrambled back to 38th

    B) MacArthur-fought around Yalu River Valley and thousands of Chinese volunteers attacked creating a stalemate around 38th

C) MacArthur-use Nuclear weapons against China

-Truman refused-wrong enemy

-MacArthur condemned Truman

-MacArthur fired and welcomed home as a hero

D) Talks dragged on for 2 years and soldiers died

E) 38th parallel remains dividing line

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