Animal behavior
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ANIMAL BEHAVIOR. Ch. 33. Ethology. The study of animal behavior. Behavior. An action or series of actions performed in response to a stimulus. http://www.kittens-lair.net/store/en/articles/img137.jpg. Stimulus. Something in the environment that causes an organism to respond.

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ANIMAL BEHAVIOR

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Animal behavior

ANIMAL BEHAVIOR

Ch. 33


Ethology

Ethology

The study of animal behavior.


Behavior

Behavior

An action or series of actions performed in response to a stimulus.

http://www.kittens-lair.net/store/en/articles/img137.jpg


Stimulus

Stimulus

Something in the environment that causes an organism to respond.

Ex: sound, smell, color, another animal, prey, predator, mate

http://imagecache.allposters.com/images/pic/PTGPOD/457352-FB~Prairie-Rattlesnake-Crotalus-Viriduis-Posters.jpg


Response

Response

An organism’s reaction to a stimulus

http://3.bp.blogspot.com/_YuR6V_Yr7Bk/SblYmJD_28I/AAAAAAAABGA/qyCkiXCHrlE/s320/fear.jpg

http://askdryin.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2009/03/sparrow-growls5-600x400.jpg


Innate behavior

Innate Behavior

Natural responses to stimuli that do not depend on learning

http://www.cals.ncsu.edu/course/ent425/tutorial/Behavior/empiid.jpg


Fixed action pattern

Fixed Action Pattern

Baby cuckoo pushes competing egg out of host parents nest.

(Brood parasitism)

Common Cuckoo being raised

by Reed Warbler

http://jakst.files.wordpress.com/2009/02/brood-parasite-birds.jpg


Learned behavior

Learned Behavior

The development of behaviors through experience.

Chimpanzees learn to use a stick to get termites out of a mound.

http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.honoluluzoo.org/images/enrich_honzoo_chimp7_small.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.honoluluzoo.org/enrichment_chimps_forage.htm&usg=__woo5vYFOeRCuUml_R-rle0bWnag=&h=224&w=300&sz=14&hl=en&start=39&um=1&tbnid=oS6_uaJssbkMQM:&tbnh=87&tbnw=116&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dchimps%2Busing%2Btools%26ndsp%3D20%26hl%3Den%26safe%3Dactive%26rls%3Dcom.microsoft:en-us%26sa%3DN%26start%3D20%26um%3D1


Animal behavior

http://dsc.discovery.com/news/2008/12/10/gallery/dolphin-sponge-324x205.jpg


Imprinting

Imprinting

Imprinting

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LbOOPKBg0iA

An animal develops a particular response to an object or organism only during a brief period early in life.

http://images.google.com/hosted/life/l?imgurl=ac71586ffcee0400&q=lorenz%20imprinting&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dlorenz%2Bimprinting%26ndsp%3D20%26hl%3Den%26safe%3Dactive%26rls%3Dcom.microsoft:en-us%26sa%3DN%26um%3D1&safe=active


Natural selection

Natural Selection

  • Behaviors that increase an individual’s reproductive success are favored by natural selection.

  • Male lions kill or chase off the cubs of a previous male.

http://www.africanwildlifeguide.com/species-guide/mammals/big-5/lion/image/Small/lion-pride.jpg


Classes of behavior

Classes of Behavior

  • Foraging

  • Antipredator

  • Cyclic

    • Migration

    • Hibernation

    • Circadian rhythm


Foraging behavior

Foraging Behavior

Food gathering behavior.

Specialists eat only one or a few things.

Generalists eat many kinds of food.


Antipredator behavior

Antipredator Behavior

  • Spines

  • Chemical defense

  • Play dead

  • Running fast

  • Form groups

  • Camouflage

  • Where's the Octopus? Aug.5, 2011


Seasonal behaviors

Seasonal Behaviors


Migration

Migration

Seasonal movement between distant places.

To find better climate, food, mates, place to raise young.


Animal behavior

Humpback whales migrate 5,100 miles between their feeding ground in Antarctica to their mating zones off Costa Rica.

Why?


Hibernation

Hibernation

Animal’s metabolic rate and body temperature drop. Animal becomes inactive for varying amounts of time.

Ex: bats, groundhogs, prairie dogs, ladybugs, box turtles, squirrels, bears


Circadian rhythms

Circadian Rhythms

  • A cycle that occurs on a daily basis

  • Internal cycle occurs in almost every animal

  • Body temperature, sleep patterns, activity level

  • Nocturnal - active at night

  • Diurnal - active in daytime


Communication

Communication


Animal behavior

  • Communication: any behavior that contains information and involves a sender and receiver.

  • Animals use signals to influence the behavior of other animals.


Types of communication

Types of Communication

  • Sight

  • Chemicals

  • Touch

  • Sound

  • Language


Sight

Sight

Visual signals are fast and easy to produce. Bright colors may scare off a competitor or predator.

http://static.howstuffworks.com/gif/animal-camouflage-3.jpg


Chemical

Chemical

Termites mark their trail with chemicals called pheromones.

http://www.archicentre.com.au/350termites.jpg


Sound

Sound

Best over large distances.

May signal food or predators or to attract mates.


Reproductive strategies

Reproductive Strategies

Animals have mating and parenting behaviors to maximize reproductive success.

1. Find and choose mate.

2. May use complex courting behavior or intense competition

3. Either abandon young or provide care.


Territorial behavior

Territorial Behavior

Defending a portion of habitat against others of the same species.

Competition for food or mates.

Marking territory with scent, sound.

Aggressive displays or fights.

http://pro.corbis.com/images/42-15309507.jpg?size=67&uid=%7BA95BE9DF-7F5A-4D6E-B041-3DF13C91FCF7%7D


Courtship behavior

Courtship Behavior

Behavior ritual that precedes and leads to mating.

http://www.photobirder.com/Bird_Photos/blue_footed_booby_r128.jpg


Sexual selection

Sexual Selection

Females prefer a particular trait in males.

That trait may affect the survival of the male.

Female chooses mate!

http://www.itsnature.org/ground/birds-land/the-peacock/


Parental behavior

Parental Behavior

Protecting young and providing food

Mammals nurse young.

90% of birds give care.

Very few amphibians, reptiles, arachnids, insects


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