Week seven agenda
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Week Seven Agenda. Announcements Link of the week Review week six lab assignment This week’s expected outcomes Next lab assignment Break-out problems Upcoming deadlines Lab assistance, questions and answers. Link of the week. http://www.kernel.org/ The Linux Kernel Archives web site

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Week Seven Agenda

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Week seven agenda

Week Seven Agenda

  • Announcements

  • Link of the week

  • Review week six lab assignment

  • This week’s expected outcomes

  • Next lab assignment

  • Break-out problems

  • Upcoming deadlines

  • Lab assistance, questions and answers

Link of the week

Link of the week


The Linux Kernel Archives web site


This web site is a community of people that want to improve or update their kernels. This site is referenced by experienced developers willing to share their knowledge.

Define: Kernel is the central component of most operating systems. It is responsible for managing the system’s resources and the communications between hardware and software.

Legacy terms: nucleus or core

The kernel connects software applications to the system resource.

The Linux kernel is portable to most 32 or 64 bit architectures.

Link of the week1

Link of the week

Define: Kernel space is space allocated specifically for the kernel. Users are not able to access this area. This area is generally larger than user space. The kernel is never swapped out to disk.

Define: User space is space in memory where all user mode applications execute. Applications executing in this space are subject to being swapped out to disk.

Define: monolithic kernel is where all code is executed in kernel addresses space to increase the performance of the system.

Define: microkernel uses system calls to implement minimal OS services such as memory management, multitasking, and inter process communication.

Link of the week2

Link of the week


Calculating System Parameters for UNIX and Linux

Configure Unix Kernel Parameters

Swap space

Number of global/routine buffers

Number of users

Number of inodes

Maximum database size

Number of semaphores

Review week six lab assignment

Review week six lab assignment

  • makefile rule has the following format:

    target : prerequisites (dependencies)



  • Target is typically the name of the file to be generated. A target may also be an action to be performed.

  • Prerequisites are files that this target depends on.

  • command_n are the SHELL commands necessary to produce the target (one command per line). Each line MUST be prefixed with a horizonal tab ( TAB key). Any other spacing will cause your script to fail.

Review week six lab assignment1

Review week six lab assignment

prog :a.o b.o c.o

g++ a.o b.o c.o -ly –o prog

a.o : prog.h a.c

g++ –c prog.h a.c

b.o :prog.h b.c

g++ –c prog.h b.c

c.o : c.c

g++ –c c.c

c.c : c.y

yacc c.y

mv y.tab.c c.c

Review week six lab assignment2

Review week six lab assignment

  • What is a dependency between source files?

    main.cpp  employee.cpp  address.cpp

    Some source files depend on other source files.

  • What are the two parts of a dependency rule?

    1) What files a file is dependent on

    2) Rule that tells how to recompile the file

  • What part of the dependency line is considered the target?

  • What is considered the action line in a makefile script?

  • We use the –c option on g++ to compile the source files to create object files.

  • We use the –o option to create the executable program from the object files.

Review week six lab assignment3

Review week six lab assignment

Linker combines a number of object and archive files, relocates their data and ties up symbol references. Usually the last step in compiling a program is to run linker.

Link object files into an executable whose name is “myProgram”

g++ -o myProgram a.o b.o c.o

.cpp is C++ source code file format

Compile source code main.cpp

g++ -c main.cpp

Review week six lab assignment4

Review week six lab assignment

  • Source(s) code  compiler  Object Module(s)  linker  Load Module  loader

  • What are the differences between a makefile and a shell script?

  • The rules in the makefile are executed based upon dependency, and not sequential order. The “make” utility performs a recursive decent through the target tree building the lowest level targets first.

  • A target is rebuilt if any of its prerequisites have a newer timestamp than itself.

Review week six lab assignments

Review week six lab assignments


a.o b.o c.o

a.c prog.h b.c c.c


Review week six lab assignments1

Review week six lab assignments

Review week six lab assignment5

Review week six lab assignment

1. touch everything - everything should build

g++ -c main.cpp

g++ -c employee.cpp

g++ -c address.cpp

g++ -o myProgram main.o employee.o address.o

2. touch nothing - nothing should build

make: `myProgram' is up to date.

3. touch address.h - main and employee should build

g++ -c employee.cpp

g++ -o myProgram main.o employee.o address.o

4. touch main.cpp - only main.o should build

g++ -c main.cpp

g++ -o myProgram main.o employee.o address.o

5. touch employee.cpp - only employee.o should build

g++ -c employee.cpp

g++ -o myProgram main.o employee.o address.o

6. touch address.cpp - only address.o should build

g++ -c address.cpp

g++ -o myProgram main.o employee.o address.o

Removing myProgram and all object files (.o)

Review week six lab assignment6

Review week six lab assignment

Helpful Hint for Lab Assignment 6-2

myProgram: < fill in dependencies >

g++ -o< fill in dependencies>

main.o: < fill in dependencies>

g++ -c < fill in dependencies>

address.o: < fill in dependencies>

g++ -c < fill in dependencies>

employee.o: <fill in dependencies>

g++ -c <fill in dependencies>

Review week six lab assignment7

Review week six lab assignment

Software Installation

Installing the software package

Package manager






Review week six lab assignment8

Review week six lab assignment

Package Install Instructions

A package is used by the installer to correctly place all the binary and data files on a system.  An installer records version numbers, file locations and check sums for verification, uninstalls and does version updates.  By using the installer all other packages that a particular application depend on will be installed at the same time. 

Review week six lab assignment9

Review week six lab assignment

The first thing to do to is "bootstrap" the installer to your system.If you have a 32-bit system (most people do) then download the  Bootstrap installer (x86) file.If you have a 64-bit system (AMD64, not IA64) then download the Bootstrap installer (AMD64) file. If you have a 32-bit or 64-bit Vista system then download the Bootstrap installer (Vista) file.The installer can be run by the Administrator or by a member of the Administrators group.

Review week six lab assignment10

Review week six lab assignment

Doing an InstallationTo install a package use the pkg_update utility.  For example, if you wish to install bash you will enter the following command:pkg_update -L bashThis command will automatically download and install the most current bash package.  If the package needs to have another package installed with it, that package will be downloaded and installed too. Pkg_update alsotakes care of which machine architecture you are using and what is the most current version of the software.

Review week six lab assignment11

Review week six lab assignment

What's Installed, Removing an InstallationTo view all of the current packages installed use the pkg_info command.

To remove a package use the pkg_deletecommand.  You do not need to know the version to delete a package.  You can delete it easily as:% pkg_delete -M bash(The '-M' reduces your typing). Refer to the man pages for more information.

Review week six lab assignment12

Review week six lab assignment

Available PackagesYou can find a list of all of the available packages on the /Tools Warehouse web page: http://www.interopsystems.com/tools/warehouse.aspx. (Requires login.)  This list continues to have new packages added and current packages updated with newer versions.When an updated release of a package is available it is announce it through the /Tools Warehouse Updates Forum.  To install an updated package you give the same command as when you installed it originally. The installer will remove the older version for you before installing the newer version.  Any changes in package dependencies will be handled at the same time.  If you have already installed the most current version of a package the installer notices this and will leave things alone.

Review week six lab assignment13

Review week six lab assignment

Package LicensingThe licensing terms for each package can be easily viewed from the /Tools Warehouse web page before you decide to download by selecting the src directory.  It is important for you to understand that there are many different licenses used. Our preference is to use Full Open License software such as BSD and MIT.  We do have many packages that are GPL or LGPL that may place restrictions on what you may do with a package's utilities and/or libraries. 

Review week six lab assignment14

Review week six lab assignment

  • Installation RecommendationsWe recommend that you always install a package with the commandpkg_update -L {name}because this will provide to you the most trouble-free installation since so many packages are dependent on other packages.  This also ensures you of getting the most current release of a package and avoiding an unnecessary download.  Regularly checking for updates is very importantfor bug and security fixes. Several times people have reported that they are having a problem with a package that they downloaded 30 to 40 days ago.  During that time the problem has been fixed.

Review week six lab assignment15

Review week six lab assignment

  • Checking for updates for all installed packages is easily done using the command:pkg_update -LaThese installations and updates are done over the Internet and packages are not stored on your system -- this helps keep more free disk space on your local system.

Review week six lab assignment16

Review week six lab assignment


There are two ways to do an installation now. You can make your choice based on what type of installation you are going to do.  For the multiple versions of software and multiple hardware platforms. It is strongly recommend to use the pkg_update for single or multiple packages.  Administrators will want to keep users using pkg_update.We always recommend that you install a package as:pkg_update -L {name}where "{name}" is the package name.  No need for a version number.  The current version number will be discovered. This means you get the most recent/current version without having to worry about a numbering scheme. 

Review week six lab assignment17

Review week six lab assignment

Multiple Software VersionsWhen you want to install a group of packages, you want to check that all currently installed packages are up-to-date.  To do an automated check for new packages then pkg_update is the tool for you to use.  You may always refer to the pkg_update manual page for more information.New users usually want to install a group of packages to match their profile.  Currently three profiles exist: user, developer and administrator.  their profiles may be added in the future based on /Tools member feedback . By using a profile, a large number of packages can be selected and installed at one time. You can do the installations easily as:user: pkg_update -Adeveloper: pkg_update -Dadministrator: pkg_update -G

Review week six lab assignment18

Review week six lab assignment

pkg_add InstallThe pkg_add utility is the "older" tool that we suggest you avoid using directly.  You can use it when you have a specific package you want to install (such as an older archived version for comparison).  You may always refer to the pkg_add manual page for more information.

Review week six lab assignment19

Review week six lab assignment

Multiple Hardware PlatformsAdministrators of several machines usually want to control what software can be installed or updated. Administrators usually like to test and validate software (for a multitude of reasons that we won't cover here) before making this software available to their users.  We understand the needs for this requirement and want to help.This control can be done setting these conditions: 1.  Cache packages have to be validated on a local network drive. 2.  Create your own "list" file in the cache directory with 'tags'. 3.  Set the PKG_LOCATION and PKG_PATH environment variables to this network drive on each system for members of the administrators group. 4.  Have members of the administrators group only use pkg_update for installations and updates.

Review week six lab assignment20

Review week six lab assignment

Problems, Bugs, Your SuggestionsIf you encounter a problem installing a package please check that you are installing the most recent version of the package.  The installer itself receives regular updates too.  So keeping the installer up-to-date will help too.The installer can update itself. We recommend that when a new version is announced you update to that version.  You can safely update the installer by doing:pkg_update -L pkgIf you already have the current version the installer will notice and leave things as they are.

Week seven expected outcomes

Week seven expected outcomes

Upon successful completion of this module, the student will be able to:

  • Create make file scripts for software programs.

  • Use pattern rules in make files.

  • Create an effective PowerPoint presentation.

  • Create make files with multiple targets.

  • Install software packages on a server.

Next lab assignment

Next lab assignment

Define: Data structure is where information is stored/collected in one place. The stored information may or may not be related.

Data structures are unique in their construction so as to deliver a specific usage. Commonly data structures are arrays, hash tables, stacks, and queues.

Next lab assignment1

Next lab assignment

  • inode ( index node)

    Every file is associated with one inode.

  • An inode is a data structure on UNIX-like operating system that stores all the information about a file.

  • An inode does not store the file name and its actual data.

  • UNIX or Linux never stores file creation time.

  • An inode is a unique number assigned to a file by the file system.

Next lab assignment2

Next lab assignment

  • The number of inodes is a kernel tunable parameter value.

  • An inode can only hold a fixed number of direct data block addresses (10 for Linux). Large files use indirect block addresses.

Next lab assignment3

Next lab assignment

The inode data structure

file mode – file permissions (rwx)

count of hard links – how many hard links point to the inode

file type – executable, block special

owner id

group id

time of last file access - timestamp

time of last file modification - timestamp

file size - bytes

file addresses – addresses of the blocks of storage containing the files data on a HDD

Next lab assignment4

Next lab assignment

Links can be viewed as entries in a directory that reference other files.

In UNIX we can create two types of links:

Physical (hard) links

Symbolic (soft) links

Next lab assignment5

Next lab assignment

A Physical Link references the exact same file (inode) as the file entry itself.

A file name in a directory can be viewed as a physical link and is no different than any other physical link. A directory is a list of physical links.

Shell link command:

ln test_file_1 test_file_hard_link

ls –li (long listing with inodes)

ls –i

Next lab assignment6

Next lab assignment

Next lab assignment7

Next lab assignment

Next lab assignment8

Next lab assignment

A Symbolic Link references a “pointer file” which has its own inode

The pointer file points to the directory entry that references the target file (inode)

The inode for the symbolic link and the target are different.

Next lab assignment9

Next lab assignment

Next lab assignment10

Next lab assignment

Inode 300 isn’t concerned about symbolic link 555

The symbolic link isn’t updated even if “your file” is deleted.

Shell link command:

ln –s test_file_1 test_file_symbolic_link

Next lab assignment11

Next lab assignment

Define: tar was originally designed for tape backups. Tar creates one large file called a heap that contains a collection of many files and directories. A tar file occupies a large amount of space for the files and directories, and a bit more. A tar file is not compressed.

The extension for a tar file is .tar.

Create a tar file

tar –cf newpack.tar /export/home/dandrear

Extract the contents from a tar file

tar –xvforigpack.tar

List the table of contents

tar –tvf origpack.tar

Next lab assignment12

Next lab assignment

Define: gzip is a utility that compresses a tar file. The compressed file extension becomes tar.gz.

Compress a tar file

gzip filename.tar

Decompress a compressed tar file

gzip –d filename.tar.gz


Define: bzip2 / bunzip2 Used to compress and decompress tar files. File extension .bz2.

Compress a tar file

bzip2 filename.tar

Decompress a compressed bzip2 file

bunzip2 –d filename.tar.bz2

Next lab assignment13

Next lab assignment


Execute listdir.pl script

Case #1: ./listdir.pl

Case #2: ./listdir.pl –l

Case #3: ./listdir.pl –l –d .

Case #4: ./listdir.pl –d /bin

Case #5: ./listdir.pl –d . –l

Case #6: ./listrdir.pl –d /bin -l

Break out problems

Break-out problems

  • inode

  • System panic

  • Semaphore

  • Tunable UNIX Parameters

  • Kernel space

  • Call by value

  • Call by reference

  • Data structure

  • Definition of a kernel

  • User space

Upcoming deadlines

Upcoming deadlines

  • Makefile Exercise 6-2 is due June 14.

  • Programming Assignment 1, 6-1 is due June 21.

  • Installation Exercise, 8-1 is due June 28.

  • Startup/Shutdown, 9-1 is due July 5.

  • Good luck on the mid-term exam

Lab assistance questions and answers

Lab assistance, questions and answers

  • Questions

  • Comments

  • Concerns

  • I am available after this Franklin Live session to discuss any problems and/or concerns regarding the lab assignments

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