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Social Cohesion. Emile Durkhiem. Emile Durkhiem. Makes the divide permanent between sociology and psychology Collective conscience Studies suicide. Collective Conscience . The moral and ethical code that holds every society together Why is this important?

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social cohesion

Social Cohesion

Emile Durkhiem

emile durkhiem
Emile Durkhiem
  • Makes the divide permanent between sociology and psychology
  • Collective conscience
  • Studies suicide
collective conscience
Collective Conscience
  • The moral and ethical code that holds every society together
  • Why is this important?
  • Where does the collective conscience come from?
    • People HAVE to have a sense of trust in order to even consider forming a society
    • As that ‘trust’ grows so does the basis of the collective conscience
changing of the collective conscience stage 1
Changing of the collective conscience….. Stage #1

Society based on mechanical solidarity

  • Primitive society
  • Based on repressive law
  • Little or no job specialization
  • High amount of religion
stage 2 organic solidarity
Stage #2- Organic Solidarity
  • Society based on organic solidarity
  • Most advanced type of society
  • Based on
    • Restitutive law
    • High degree of job specialization
    • Society based on science and industry (not religion)
how does society move from mechanical solidarity to organic solidarity
How does society move from mechanical solidarity to organic solidarity?
  • Increase in a division of labor
  • Increase in individual freedom
    • Because of increase in science
durkheim and suicide
Durkheim and Suicide
  • Caused the divide between sociology and psychology
  • Studied suicide rates per 100,000 people in Germany, France, and a disputed territory between them
  • Used coroner’s notes and suicide notes to classify the person’s behavior into his sociological categories
suicide
Suicide

suicide is all causes of death resulting directly or indirectly from a positive or negative act of the victim which he or she knows will produce this effect

  • Positive suicide- doing something to die
  • Negative suicide- not doing something that causes death
variable 1
Variable 1:
  • How INTEGRATED into the collective conscience was the individual
    • Integrated in Sociology - of or pertaining to a group or society whose members interact on the basis of commonly held norms or values.
  • 2 types of suicide fall under this
type 1 egoistic suicide
Type 1. Egoistic Suicide
  • Low level of integration into the collective conscience
  • Example: most typical teen suicides
type 2 altruistic
Type 2. Altruistic
  • High level of integration into the collective conscience
  • Examples:
    • Suttee in India
    • Kamikaze pilots in WWII
    • 9/11 terrorists from the terrorist’s perspective
variable 2
Variable 2
  • How REGULATED by the collective conscience was the individual?
  • Two types of suicide
type 1 anomic suicide
Type 1: Anomic Suicide
  • Low level of regulation by the collective conscience
  • Examples
    • Widow/widower- generally the surviving spouse will be dead in 18 months (1.5 years) or less.
    • Lottery winner
type 2 fatalistic suicide
Type 2: Fatalistic Suicide
  • High level of regulation by the collective conscience
  • Examples
    • Prisoner with life without parole
    • Holocaust camp prisoner on a hunger strike
suicide across the board
Suicide Across the “Board”
  • Gender
  • Religion
  • Country
durkheim and religion
Durkheim and Religion

Totemic principle

  • Australian aboriginal tribes
  • All human religious expression was intrinsically founded in relationship to the group from which it emerges
  • Sacred-religious
  • Profane- not religious
  • Totem- any religious symbol
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