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Social Cohesion. Emile Durkhiem. Emile Durkhiem. Makes the divide permanent between sociology and psychology Collective conscience Studies suicide. Collective Conscience . The moral and ethical code that holds every society together Why is this important?

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Social cohesion

Social Cohesion

Emile Durkhiem


Emile durkhiem
Emile Durkhiem

  • Makes the divide permanent between sociology and psychology

  • Collective conscience

  • Studies suicide


Collective conscience
Collective Conscience

  • The moral and ethical code that holds every society together

  • Why is this important?

  • Where does the collective conscience come from?

    • People HAVE to have a sense of trust in order to even consider forming a society

    • As that ‘trust’ grows so does the basis of the collective conscience



Changing of the collective conscience stage 1
Changing of the collective conscience….. Stage #1

Society based on mechanical solidarity

  • Primitive society

  • Based on repressive law

  • Little or no job specialization

  • High amount of religion


Stage 2 organic solidarity
Stage #2- Organic Solidarity

  • Society based on organic solidarity

  • Most advanced type of society

  • Based on

    • Restitutive law

    • High degree of job specialization

    • Society based on science and industry (not religion)


How does society move from mechanical solidarity to organic solidarity
How does society move from mechanical solidarity to organic solidarity?

  • Increase in a division of labor

  • Increase in individual freedom

    • Because of increase in science


Durkheim and suicide
Durkheim and Suicide solidarity?

  • Caused the divide between sociology and psychology

  • Studied suicide rates per 100,000 people in Germany, France, and a disputed territory between them

  • Used coroner’s notes and suicide notes to classify the person’s behavior into his sociological categories


Suicide
Suicide solidarity?

suicide is all causes of death resulting directly or indirectly from a positive or negative act of the victim which he or she knows will produce this effect

  • Positive suicide- doing something to die

  • Negative suicide- not doing something that causes death


Variable 1
Variable 1: solidarity?

  • How INTEGRATED into the collective conscience was the individual

    • Integrated in Sociology - of or pertaining to a group or society whose members interact on the basis of commonly held norms or values.

  • 2 types of suicide fall under this


Type 1 egoistic suicide
Type 1. Egoistic Suicide solidarity?

  • Low level of integration into the collective conscience

  • Example: most typical teen suicides


Type 2 altruistic
Type 2. Altruistic solidarity?

  • High level of integration into the collective conscience

  • Examples:

    • Suttee in India

    • Kamikaze pilots in WWII

    • 9/11 terrorists from the terrorist’s perspective


Variable 2
Variable 2 solidarity?

  • How REGULATED by the collective conscience was the individual?

  • Two types of suicide


Type 1 anomic suicide
Type 1: Anomic Suicide solidarity?

  • Low level of regulation by the collective conscience

  • Examples

    • Widow/widower- generally the surviving spouse will be dead in 18 months (1.5 years) or less.

    • Lottery winner


Type 2 fatalistic suicide
Type 2: Fatalistic Suicide solidarity?

  • High level of regulation by the collective conscience

  • Examples

    • Prisoner with life without parole

    • Holocaust camp prisoner on a hunger strike


Suicide across the board
Suicide Across the “Board” solidarity?

  • Gender

  • Religion

  • Country


Durkheim and religion
Durkheim and Religion solidarity?

Totemic principle

  • Australian aboriginal tribes

  • All human religious expression was intrinsically founded in relationship to the group from which it emerges

  • Sacred-religious

  • Profane- not religious

  • Totem- any religious symbol


Questions
Questions? solidarity?


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