The theory of totally integrated education implications for assessing educational quality
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+. The Theory of Totally Integrated Education: Implications for Assessing Educational Quality. Theodore W. Frick, March 2, 2012. Current Political Climate.

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The Theory of Totally Integrated Education: Implications for Assessing Educational Quality

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The theory of totally integrated education implications for assessing educational quality

+

The Theory of Totally Integrated Education: Implications for Assessing Educational Quality

Theodore W. Frick, March 2, 2012


Current political climate

Current Political Climate

  • State departments of education and the U.S. federal government are pushing for value-added models (VAM’s) as a means for determining teacher quality.

  • VAM’s are problematic.

  • This is a narrow view, focusing on teachers and specific areas of cognitive learning achievement.

  • We should be trying to improve the quality of education, not just teachers.

  • TIE Theory can help broaden this narrow perspective!

TIE Theory: Assessing Educational Quality


The theory of totally integrated education implications for assessing educational quality

TIE: Totally Integrated EducationConnecting cognition, intention and emotion with 9 kinds of worthwhile learning outcomes—27 connections

TIE Theory: Assessing Educational Quality


The theory of totally integrated education implications for assessing educational quality

TIE theory provides a vision for creating worthwhile education. TIE theory further provides a rationale for these aims.

Fundamental to TIE is the notion of aligning student cognition, intention and emotion with authentic learning tasks. 

When this is done well, student learning is predicted to be more flexible and whole, and less vulnerable to forgetting.

TIE Theory: Assessing Educational Quality


The theory of totally integrated education implications for assessing educational quality

Typical Learning Outcomes

In Current Education System

Learning Outcomes

Envisioned by

TIE Theory

TIE Theory: Assessing Educational Quality


Overview

Overview

  • TIE theory

    • Emotion creates the architecture of mental structures

    • Integration of knowing that, knowing how, and knowing that one

  • Implications of TIE theory for assessing educational quality

    • Content design

    • Context

    • Process

    • Outcomes

TIE Theory: Assessing Educational Quality


The theory of totally integrated education implications for assessing educational quality

Overview of TIE Theory:

Connecting Cognition, Intention and Emotion

TIE Theory: Assessing Educational Quality


Importance of connecting cognition intention and emotion

Importance of connecting cognition, intention and emotion

  • Greenspan & Benderly (1997): emotion is the architect of mental structures

    • “In fact, emotions, not cognitive stimulation, serve as the mind’s primary architect” (p. 1).

    • They identify the importance of emotion during human experience: “… each sensation … also gives rise to an affect or emotion…. It is this dual coding of experience that is the key to understanding how emotions organize intellectual capacities …” (p. 18).

TIE Theory: Assessing Educational Quality


Importance of connecting cognition intention and emotion cont d

Importance of connecting cognition, intention and emotion (cont’d)

  • Goleman (2011): emotional intelligence

    • “When we have a thought it’s immediately valenced by these brain centers, positive or negative.”

    • Goleman is referring to “… emotional centers in the midbrain, interacting with a specific area in the prefrontal cortex” [Kindle location 116].

TIE Theory: Assessing Educational Quality


Tie theory predicts

TIE theory predicts:

  • To focus only on student cognitive development at the expense of intention and emotion will result in weaker or disconnected mental schema.

  • Such schema will lack wholeness and hence would be poorly integrated into existing mental structures, much like an uninvited guest at a party who stands in the corner of the room and does not interact with other invited guests.

  • If students do make cognitive gains, but they are indifferent or have negative feelings about the learning experience, then such schema would be more vulnerable to forgetting due to lack of integration.

TIE Theory: Assessing Educational Quality


On the other hand complete connectedness occurs during learning tasks when

On the other hand, complete connectedness occurs during learning tasks when:

  • Cognition: S comes to know X.

  • Intention: S intends to learn X.

  • Emotion: S feels good about learning X.

    Where S represents the student, and

    X represents the 9 kinds of connected learning outcomes: instantial, relational, criterial, imitative, adaptive, creative, recognitive, acquaintive, and appreciative.

TIE Theory: Assessing Educational Quality


Connecting cognition intention and e motion is represented by this diagram

Connecting cognition, intention and emotion is represented by this diagram:

TIE Theory: Assessing Educational Quality


There are three basic kinds of cognitive learning outcomes maccia 1987 frick 1997

There are three basic kinds of cognitive learning outcomes (Maccia, 1987; Frick, 1997):

TIE Theory: Assessing Educational Quality


The theory of totally integrated education implications for assessing educational quality

Completely-connected learning outcomes where cognition, intention and emotion are aligned with knowing that, knowing how and knowing that one

TIE Theory: Assessing Educational Quality


The theory of totally integrated education implications for assessing educational quality

Nine specific types of learning outcomes:

TIE Theory: Assessing Educational Quality


The theory of totally integrated education implications for assessing educational quality

TIE theory predicts that when cognition, intention and emotion are completely connected with 9 types of learning outcomes (27 connections total), then vulnerability to forgetting is minimized.

TIE Theory: Assessing Educational Quality


Partially connected learning outcomes note the empty areas which indicate missing connections

Partially connected learning outcomes: Note the empty areas which indicate missing connections

TIE Theory: Assessing Educational Quality


The theory of totally integrated education implications for assessing educational quality

Typical learning outcomes in school: Note that know that one is missing and not connected to know that or how; know how and that are disconnected; intention and emotion are missing everywhere.

TIE Theory: Assessing Educational Quality


Tie theorem

TIE Theorem

  • What is learned (X) will be less vulnerable to forgetting (because mental structures are stronger and more flexible) when

    • Cognition, intention and emotion are aligned (S comes to know X; S intends to learn X; S feels good about learning X)

      AND

    • Nine kinds of learning tasks are integrated (knowing that, knowing how, and knowing that-one)

      AND

    • Learning tasks mastered by students are authentic and whole.

TIE Theory: Assessing Educational Quality


For each educational objective or standard fully integrated learning outcomes are depicted below

For each educational objective or standard, fully integrated learning outcomes are depicted below.

TIE Theory: Assessing Educational Quality


How can we assess dimensions of educational quality

How Can We Assess Dimensions of Educational Quality?

Implications from TIE Theory

TIE Theory: Assessing Educational Quality


Education intended guided learning

Education: intended, guided learning

  • Steiner (1988): Education occurs when someone (teacher) intentionally guides the learning of another (student) who intends to learn something (content—X) somewhere (context)

  • In other words, development of intelligence occurs through education—intended, guided learning.

  • Education is taken broadly: teachers are not limited to those in K-12 and college instruction; students are not limited to young people; content not limited to traditional subjects; contexts not limited to schools and universities.

TIE Theory: Assessing Educational Quality


A metaphor of dining in a restaurant for assessing quality

A Metaphor of Dining in a Restaurant for Assessing Quality

  • Imagine we are dining in a restaurant. There are four dimensions of quality we might consider:

  • Designof various courses of food to be served (i.e., content)

    • Menu, nutritional value of menu items (courses), quality of ingredients

  • Environmentof the restaurant (context)

    • Comfort of seating, cleanliness of facilities, food storage and disposal

  • Processof the dining experience

    • Meal preparation by chefs, timeliness of courses, customer eating and drinking, service by wait staff

  • Outcomes

    • Customer satisfaction, customer payment for meals, tip for wait staff, no customer food poisoning or nausea, restaurant sustainability

  • TIE Theory: Assessing Educational Quality


    Dimensions of assessing educational quality

    Dimensions of Assessing Educational Quality

    • Now imagine we are in a school or university. There are four dimensions of quality we might consider:

    • Designof various courses (content)

      • Worthwhileness of goals (TIE), authenticity & sequencing (4C/ID), integration of content (TIE), supportive and JIT information (4C/ID)

  • Environmentfor teaching and learning (context)

    • Authenticity of setting (knowing that one, best of culture—TIE)

  • Processof the teaching-learning experience

    • TALQ scales: teacher use of First Principles of Instruction, successful student engagement (ALT)

  • Outcomes

    • Completely-connected learning outcomes, teacher satisfaction, sustainability of organization

  • TIE Theory: Assessing Educational Quality


    Dimensions of assessing educational quality1

    Dimensions of Assessing Educational Quality

    • Now imagine we are considering the IST program. There are four dimensions of quality we might consider:

    • Designof various courses (content)

      • Worthwhileness of goals (TIE), authenticity & sequencing (4C/ID), integration of content (TIE), supportive and JIT information (4C/ID)

  • Environmentfor teaching and learning (context)

    • Authenticity of setting (knowing that one, best of culture—TIE)

  • Processof the teaching-learning experience

    • TALQ scales: teacher use of First Principles of Instruction, successful student engagement (ALT)

  • Outcomes

    • Completely-connected learning outcomes, teacher satisfaction, sustainability of organization

  • TIE Theory: Assessing Educational Quality


    Dimensions of assessing educational quality2

    Dimensions of Assessing Educational Quality

    • Now imagine we looking at a specific course. There are four dimensions of quality we might consider:

    • Designof the course (content)

      • Worthwhileness of goals (TIE), authenticity & sequencing (4C/ID), integration of content (TIE), supportive and JIT information (4C/ID)

  • Environmentfor teaching and learning (context)

    • Authenticity of setting (knowing that one, best of culture—TIE)

  • Processof the teaching-learning experience

    • TALQ scales: teacher use of First Principles of Instruction, successful student engagement (ALT)

  • Outcomes

    • Completely-connected learning outcomes, teacher satisfaction, sustainability of organization

  • TIE Theory: Assessing Educational Quality


    Why does this matter

    Why does this matter?

    • Current political climate in U.S. is focused largely on teacher quality (getting rid of poor teachers)

    • Quality of content and context are being largely ignored

      • Why are we not looking at quality of textbooks (content)?

      • Why are we not examining the quality of goals of learning (e.g., truth, goodness and beauty of content)?

      • Why are we not looking at quality of facilities (context)?

    • Outcomes are being viewed narrowly in terms of student academic achievement (cognitive)

      • Learner emotions and intentions are being ignored (i.e., lack of integration).

      • What good is it if students learn the wrong things, hate it, and do not want to learn more?

    TIE Theory: Assessing Educational Quality


    A work in progress

    A Work in Progress

    • IDCL research group is working on these issues: Instructional Design for Complex Learning

    • See DEQ paper at:

      http://educology.indiana.edu/Frick/Dimensionsof Educational Quality.pdf

    • See TIE Theory paper at:

      http://educology.indiana.edu/Frick/TIEtheory.pdf

    TIE Theory: Assessing Educational Quality


    Acknowledgment

    Acknowledgment

    • Thanks to Colin Gray for creating the graphics in this presentation, and to Elizabeth Boling for drawings that illustrate basic kinds of knowing.

    TIE Theory: Assessing Educational Quality


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