States of matter
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States of Matter. 1. Develop a rule for each category . This rule should explain why each item is in that category. Hint : figure out what all items in a category have in common. Testers. 2. Write down each of the following and decide which category they would be in based on your rule.

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States of Matter

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States of Matter

1. Develop a rule for each category. This rule should explain why each item is in that category. Hint: figure out what all items in a category have in common.


2. Write down each of the following and decide which category they would be in based on your rule.

  • Bottled perfume

  • Marble

  • Coffee

  • Air

  • Concrete

  • Hydrogen


  • Matter can be classified into groups based on the shape and volume of their moving particles

    • SOLID

    • LIQUID

    • GAS

    • PLASMA

  • SOLID - state of matter when materials have definite shape anddefinite volume

    • Atoms are packed tightly together

    • Atoms are arranged neatly, orderly

    • Atoms vibrate around the same location

Examples of Solids are

  • Ice

  • Frog

  • Cheese

  • Bricks

  • Wood

  • Popcscle

  • Liquid- state of matter when materials have definite volume andindefinite shape

    • Liquid takes the same shape as its container

    • Particles FLOW past one another easily

    • Atoms are close, but not tight

    • Atoms are randomly arranged

Examples of Liquids are

  • Orange Juice

  • Water

  • Soft drinks

  • Milk

  • Rubbing Alcohol

  • Vinegar

  • Gas – state of matter when materials have indefinite shape AND indefinite volume

    • Take shape and volume of container

    • Atoms spread to fit container

    • Atoms move rapidly, constantly

    • Atoms randomly arranged with large spaces between them

Examples of Gases are

  • Steam

  • Oxygen

  • Carbon dioxide

  • Smog

  • Tear Gas

  • Helium

  • Plasma – state of matter made up of small electrically charged particles

    • Found where there is high temperature and pressure

    • Rare to find on Earth

    • Ex, lightning

    • Used in fluorescent light bulbs and neon lights


  • Kinetic Energy (KE) - energy of motion

  • Higher KE = Higher Temperature

    • All matter is made of millions of tiny particles

    • these particles are constantly moving, and have KE

Order the states of matter from lowest KE to highest KE

  • Solid

  • Liquid

  • Gas

  • Plasma


Physical Changes- physical properties change but the substance is still the same

Phase Change - reversible physical change from one state to another

  • heat energy is absorbed or released

Energy determines the state!

When energy is added, particles move faster!

When energy is taken away, particles move slower!

Add or Subtract Energy. . .

  • Melting – changing from solid to liquid

    • When a solid gains heat

    • Temperature and energy INCREASE

  • Freezing –changing from liquid to solid

    • When a liquid loses heat

    • Baked cookies are actually FROZEN because they are solid.

    • Freezing does not always mean COLD.

    • Freezing point and melting point are the same temperature

  • Evaporation –changing from a liquid to a gas

    • Only liquid touching air evaporates

    • Temperature is below boiling point

    • Water VAPOR or STEAM = gas

    • More area = faster evaporation

  • Vaporization (boiling) – Change of liquid to a gas- when vapor pressure is the same as atmospheric pressure and bubbling occurs

    • Vapor pressure - pressure created by moving gas particles bumping into each other or the container

    • Atmospheric pressure – pressure outside the container

  • Condensation –change from gas to liquid

    • Water vapor particles hit a cool surface, lose heat, and change into water

  • Sublimation-change from solid to gas


    • Dry ice

Red = heating

Blue = cooling



Thermal Expansion and Contraction

  • Tendency of matter to expand or contract as a result of changes in temperature.

  • Typically: when heat is added, matter expands and when heat is removed matter contracts.

  • Expand: Get larger

  • Contract: Get smaller

Starter 11/7

  • Determine what characteristics the “Yes” examples share. Write a list.

Part 2

  • Write down the following list and decide whether they are “Yes” or “No”

  • Sugar is used by the body to produce energy

  • Snow changes to water vapor

  • Sugar dissolves in water

  • Salt water evaporates to dryness

  • Wood burns in a campfire

  • “Crazy Glue” hardens when exposed to air

After reading “Was it a Chemical Change”

  • Flip the paper over and answer these questions:

  • Summarize the article in 3 or more sentences

  • Create a list of the indicators (how you know) a chemical change occurred

  • What do you think catalysts are?Write where you got that information (the actual words)

  • Explain the difference between a chemical and physical change. How can you separate substances that have been chemically changed?

Starter 11/5

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