# States of Matter - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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States of Matter. 1. Develop a rule for each category . This rule should explain why each item is in that category. Hint : figure out what all items in a category have in common. Testers. 2. Write down each of the following and decide which category they would be in based on your rule.

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States of Matter

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### States of Matter

1. Develop a rule for each category. This rule should explain why each item is in that category. Hint: figure out what all items in a category have in common.

### Testers

2. Write down each of the following and decide which category they would be in based on your rule.

• Bottled perfume

• Marble

• Coffee

• Air

• Concrete

• Hydrogen

### STATES OF MATTER

• Matter can be classified into groups based on the shape and volume of their moving particles

• SOLID

• LIQUID

• GAS

• PLASMA

• SOLID - state of matter when materials have definite shape anddefinite volume

• Atoms are packed tightly together

• Atoms are arranged neatly, orderly

• Atoms vibrate around the same location

### Examples of Solids are

• Ice

• Frog

• Cheese

• Bricks

• Wood

• Popcscle

• Liquid- state of matter when materials have definite volume andindefinite shape

• Liquid takes the same shape as its container

• Particles FLOW past one another easily

• Atoms are close, but not tight

• Atoms are randomly arranged

### Examples of Liquids are

• Orange Juice

• Water

• Soft drinks

• Milk

• Rubbing Alcohol

• Vinegar

• Gas – state of matter when materials have indefinite shape AND indefinite volume

• Take shape and volume of container

• Atoms spread to fit container

• Atoms move rapidly, constantly

• Atoms randomly arranged with large spaces between them

### Examples of Gases are

• Steam

• Oxygen

• Carbon dioxide

• Smog

• Tear Gas

• Helium

• Plasma – state of matter made up of small electrically charged particles

• Found where there is high temperature and pressure

• Rare to find on Earth

• Ex, lightning

• Used in fluorescent light bulbs and neon lights

### MATTER

• Kinetic Energy (KE) - energy of motion

• Higher KE = Higher Temperature

• All matter is made of millions of tiny particles

• these particles are constantly moving, and have KE

• Solid

• Liquid

• Gas

• Plasma

KE

### Physical Changes- physical properties change but the substance is still the same

Phase Change - reversible physical change from one state to another

• heat energy is absorbed or released

### Energy determines the state!

When energy is added, particles move faster!

When energy is taken away, particles move slower!

### Add or Subtract Energy. . .

• Melting – changing from solid to liquid

• When a solid gains heat

• Temperature and energy INCREASE

• Freezing –changing from liquid to solid

• When a liquid loses heat

• Baked cookies are actually FROZEN because they are solid.

• Freezing does not always mean COLD.

• Freezing point and melting point are the same temperature

• Evaporation –changing from a liquid to a gas

• Only liquid touching air evaporates

• Temperature is below boiling point

• Water VAPOR or STEAM = gas

• More area = faster evaporation

• Vaporization (boiling) – Change of liquid to a gas- when vapor pressure is the same as atmospheric pressure and bubbling occurs

• Vapor pressure - pressure created by moving gas particles bumping into each other or the container

• Atmospheric pressure – pressure outside the container

• Condensation –change from gas to liquid

• Water vapor particles hit a cool surface, lose heat, and change into water

• Sublimation-change from solid to gas

• NO LIQUID IN BETWEEN

• Dry ice

Red = heating

Blue = cooling

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### Thermal Expansion and Contraction

• Tendency of matter to expand or contract as a result of changes in temperature.

• Typically: when heat is added, matter expands and when heat is removed matter contracts.

• Expand: Get larger

• Contract: Get smaller

### Starter 11/7

• Determine what characteristics the “Yes” examples share. Write a list.

### Part 2

• Write down the following list and decide whether they are “Yes” or “No”

• Sugar is used by the body to produce energy

• Snow changes to water vapor

• Sugar dissolves in water

• Salt water evaporates to dryness

• Wood burns in a campfire

• “Crazy Glue” hardens when exposed to air

### After reading “Was it a Chemical Change”

• Flip the paper over and answer these questions:

• Summarize the article in 3 or more sentences

• Create a list of the indicators (how you know) a chemical change occurred

• What do you think catalysts are?Write where you got that information (the actual words)

• Explain the difference between a chemical and physical change. How can you separate substances that have been chemically changed?