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Dictators Threaten World Peace. CH 24 Sect 1 Pg 734. Failures of the peace of WWI. Treaty of Versailles caused anger & resentment. Germans saw nothing fair in the treaty blaming them for the war. Soviets resented the carving up of Russia.

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Dictators threaten world peace l.jpg

Dictators Threaten World Peace

CH 24 Sect 1

Pg 734

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Failures of the peace of WWI

  • Treaty of Versailles caused anger & resentment.

  • Germans saw nothing fair in the treaty blaming them for the war.

  • Soviets resented the carving up of Russia.

  • People turned to authoritarian leaders to solve economic & social problems.

  • Dictators were able to seize power.

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Joseph Stalin Transforms the Soviet Union

  • Democracy gave way to civil war resulting in the establishment of a communist gov.

  • Joseph Stalin took control.

  • Made both agricultural & industrial growth the prime goals of the Soviet Union.

  • Abolished all privately owned farms & replaced them w/ gov. owned farms.

  • ***All economic activity was placed under state management.

  • Established a totalitarian state – gov. that maintained complete control over its citizens.

    • Individuals have no rights, & gov. oppresses all opposition.

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Rise of Fascism in Italy

  • Benito Mussolini – established a totalitarian state in Italy.

  • Unemployment & inflation produced bitter strikes, communist led.

  • Middle & upper class demanded stronger leadership.

  • Mussolini played on the fears of economic collapse & communism.

  • Won support of many discontented Italians.

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Rise of Fascism in Italy

  • Mussolini established the Fascist Party.

  • Fascism – stressed nationalism & placed the interests of the state above the individual.

  • “black shirts” – Mussolini supporters

  • IL Duce – the leader

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Nazis take over Germany

  • Adolf Hitler followed the path of Mussolini

  • Nazis Party – National Socialist German Worker’s Party

  • Fuhrer – the leader

  • Promised to bring Germany out of chaos

  • Mein Kampf – Hitler’s book which set forth the basic beliefs of Nazism

  • Nazism – the German brand of Fascism, based on extreme nationalism.

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Nazis take over Germany

  • Hitler dreamed of uniting all German speaking people in great German empire.

  • Wanted to enforce racial “purification”

  • Blonde haired, blue eyed, Aryans “master race”

  • National expansion – more living space

  • Great Depression helped Nazis come to power.

  • Germany’s economy was dependant on the U.S. so they were hit hard.

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Nazis take over Germany

  • Unemployed men joined Hitler’s private army. “brown shirts”

  • Nazis had become the strongest party.

  • Hitler appointed chancellor

  • Dismantled the Weimar Republic & established the Third Reich

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Militarists gain control in Japan

  • Nationalist military leaders trying to take over the imperial gov. of Japan.

  • Need for more living space.

  • Launched a surprise attack on Chinese province of Manchuria.

  • League of Nations allowed actions despite the goal to prevent aggressive acts.

  • Condemned Japan, who simply quit the league.

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Aggression in Europe & Africa

  • Hitler pulled Germany out of the League of Nations.

  • Began a military build up

  • Sent troops into the Rhineland

  • League did nothing to stop Hitler

  • Mussolini began building his empire beginning w/ Ethiopia.

  • League of Nation’s response was an ineffective economic boycott.

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Civil War in Spain

  • Francisco Franco rebelled against the Spanish republic.

  • Spanish Civil War began

  • Americans sent aid but the aid was not sufficient to stop the spread of fascism.

  • Western democracies remained neutral.

  • Hitler & Mussolini backed Franco w/troops

  • Forged a close relationship b/w Germany & Italy.

  • Spain became a Fascist state.

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Americans cling to Isolationism

  • Americans were determined to avoid war & maintain isolationism.

  • Congress passed a series of Neutrality Acts.

    • Outlawed arms sales or loans to nations at war.

    • Extended the ban on arms sales & loans to nations engaged in civil war.

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Neutrality breaks down

  • Roosevelt found it impossible to remain neutral despite public opinion.

  • U.S. continued to send supplies to China b/c Japan had not declared war on China.

  • Roosevelt spoke out against isolationism.

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Answer these questions

  • In what countries did totalitarian governments come to power?

  • What was the goal of the militarists who took control in Japan?

  • How did the League of Nations responds to aggression?

  • What type of foreign policy did the U.S. adopt after WWI?

  • What laws did Congress pass regarding foreign policy?

  • Why did many Americans have difficulty with a policy of neutrality?