Monitoring and evaluating policy across the spheres and functions of government
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Monitoring and evaluating policy across the spheres and functions of government

University of Cape Town

Department of Statistical Sciences

Funding was contributed by the Conflict and Governance Facility, a project of National Treasury, which is funded by the European Union under the European Programme for Reconstruction and Development


M&E functions of government

  • Monitoring: A continuing function that uses systematic collection of data on specified indicators to provide management/stakeholders with indications of the extent of progress and achievement of objectives

  • Evaluation: The systematic and objective assessment of an ongoing or completed project, programme or policy, its design, implementation and results. The aim is to determine the relevance and fulfilment of objectives, efficiency, effectiveness, impact and sustainability.

    Adapted from OECD; http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/29/21/2754804.pdf 17 Oct 2005


M&E functions of government

  • Motherhood and apple pie? Is there anything to discuss?

  • Does access to data lead to better information, lead to better decision making, lead to better performance?


Evidence of what? functions of government

Monitoring involves selecting an indicator that can provide evidence of progress towards some objective (value judgements)

Assumptions: causality and the links between actions and results.

To provide evidence:

  • Articulate the framework within which monitoring will occur.

  • Clarify the logic that will be applied in making the claim for evidence (of progress).


M&E of Policy in South Africa: Alignment across the Spheres and Functions of Government

Purpose:

  • To develop a critical appraisal of the current system of monitoring and evaluation established by government around the Programme of Action (POA)

  • To propose a set of indicators that can be used to appraise performance.

  • To investigate the alignment of M&E processes across national and provincial spheres of government.-

  • To investigate the existence of appropriate data sets that can be used to calibrate indicators.


Goal setting and prioritisation
Goal setting and prioritisation and Functions of Government

MCDA

  • Problem Structuring : defining the problem arena, including stakeholders

  • Specifying criteria (in M&E these could be referred to as objectives, goals or outcomes)

  • Development of alternative courses of action

  • Preference modelling

  • Assigning weights to the criteria


A strategic framework for m e
A strategic framework for M&E and Functions of Government

  • Articulating Goals/ Values/ High level Objectives (or, put simply “what is the problem?”)

  • Developing a ‘theory of change’ on how interventions will tackle the problems within the problem context

  • Determining what activities will be undertaken to address the problems.

  • Outcomes: if all interventions are successful where will we be? The answer is the (medium to long-term) outcome. NB: Check that activities outcomes objectives/ goals.


Problem and Functions of Government

Ind

Strategic M&E

Inputs

Theory

of

Change

Ind

Objectives/ Goals

Activities: Programmes projects, etc

Ind

Ind

Outputs

Does outcome lead to goal being fulfilled?

Outcome

Ind


High level objectives for the Province and Functions of Government

A Home for ALL

To enhance economic participation, shared growth and development

To enhance spatial integration and provide sustainable service delivery

To ensure the integrity of the physical environment

To develop social and human capital

To practice holistic governance and administratn



A Home for ALL and Functions of Government

To enhance economic participation, shared growth and development

To enhance spatial integration and provide sustainable service delivery

To ensure the integrity of the physical environment

To develop social and human capital

To practice holistic governance and administration

Enhanced broad-based economic participation

Enhanced provincial economic growth

% black ownership of companies

% real GDPR growth per capita p.a.

Pro-poor, shared economic growth

Skills profile which matches the needs of the economy

Share of poorest quintile in provincial consumption (MDG).

Adequate spatial integration and transport infrastructure to support a growing and integrated economy

% of Science, Engineering and Technology graduates

Significantly increased employment

% of individual income spent on transport

Unemployment rate


A Home for ALL and Functions of Government

To enhance economic participation, shared growth and development

To enhance spatial integration and provide sustainable service delivery

To ensure the integrity of the physical environment

To develop social and human capital

To practice holistic governance and administration

High levels of social capital in communities

Improved human capital and educational status

Safe communities

Basic services and adequate bulk infrastructure which leads to improved quality of life

An improved health profile

An effective social safety net

Spatially integrated, sustainable human settlements

An environment which promotes sustainable livelihoods

A physical environment which enhances quality of life

Sustainable access to safe water resources

Sustainable access to safe energy resources

Government operates in a holistic manner

Constitutional rights are protected

Government is effective, efficient and has good customer (citizen) relations

There is political stability and peace

There is democracy and accountability

There is adherence to the rule of law

Government is ethical and free of corruption

Adequate spatial integration and transport infrastructure to support a growing and integrated economy

Enhanced provincial economic growth

Pro-poor, shared economic growth

Enhanced broad-based economic participation

Significantly increased employment

Skills profile which matches the needs of the economy


National value tree
National value tree and Functions of Government


A society that truly cares & a better life for all (as in the Bill of Rights& Constitution)

Reduce preventable causes of death-TB, diabetes, malnutrition, maternal deaths, HIV/AIDS, malaria (9)

Complete tertiary infrastructure improvements (42)

Recruit & retain health personnel

Improve services in health facilities

Ensure involvement of communities in local economic initiatives

Comprehensive assistance to emerging farmers, expand agricultural support programs (37-39)

Encourage labour intensive methods

Deal with negative impact of casualisation

Extend Expanded Public Works Program (28-29)

Skills training

Learnerships

Education system geared for productive work

Support micro-loan financing

Reform support agencies

Change to financial system and institutions

Complete land restitution

Continue land reform

Provide efficient, safe transport (9,26, 52)

Create a single & integrated economy that benefits all.

Build a healthier nation

Promote social cohesion (14) & a non-racist, non-sexist, democratic society

Improve safety & security

Help consolidate peace, security & development in southern Africa, Africa & globe & Position SA as an effective global player

Broaden access to services & consti-tutional rights and provide good governance

Reduce unemployment

Continue economic growth (6, 14, 22)

Alleviate poverty

Strengthen democracy esp. Zimbabwe, DRC, Angola, also Congo,Swaziland also Tanzania, Kenya, Burundi, Rwanda, Ghana, Senegal, Ivory Coast, Sudan, Ethiopia, Somalia, Mahgreb) (60, 61)

Facilitate economic activity within the second economy, Pro-mote involvement of marginalised in economic activity (27-39)

Pursue multilateral global approach. Democratise UN, IMF, WB, etc. Improve relations with China (64)

Facilitate creation of jobs, skills and work experience (27,29,32-36,43,45)

Improve opportunities for self-employment &

Promote sustainable community livelihoods (27)

Provide comprehensive social security (10) and ensure people access them (6)

Reduce Corruption (10)

Improve provision of information (49)

Economic cooperation in southern Africa

Realise NEPAD, strengthen AU, SADC (62)

Efficient logistics and infrastructure (59)

Cooperation with industrialised nations

Promote growth of small & micro-enterprises (30,31)

Facilitate broad-based BEE

Provide the skills re-quired by the economy (27,29,32-36,43,45)

Improve household & community assets

Build community, good citizenship, solidarity

Reduce crime & m. death from crime

Improve state capacity for growth & development (47)

Better interaction between govt& people (10, 50, 71)

Better inter-govt. cooperation

Better access to govt information

Strengthen democratic institutions incl. courts

Improve services in government

Create new jobs

Ensure low interest & inflation rates

Speed up rural development & urban renewal

Increase public & private of investment (24-26)

Invest in road, rail & air transport, telecommunications & energy

Improve efficiency of justice system (9,55)

Address social roots of criminality

Reduce death from road accidents

Integrate traditional leadership

Better implementation, monitoring, evaluation

Create a compassionate govt service (9)

Cooperation with South

Strengthen SA’s Early Warning Mechanism

Speed up delivery of water, sanitation, phones, health, electricity, housing, education

Improve local govt capacity (48)

Multipurpose centres, e-govt, etc. (49)

Provide free basic water & electricity

Provide efficient, safe transport (9,26, 52)

Allocate more resources to welfare grants for 3 yrs (44)

Improve UIF

Ensure people access grants

All children with decent classrooms

Spend in favour of students from poor households

Expand school nutrition program.

Introduce national health insurance

Expand primary school nutrition progm (43)

Expand primary health care (42)

Comprehensive care & treatment of HIV & AIDS.

Reduce teacher/pupil ratio

Free health service to disabled

Protect borders (illegal immigration, crime, terrorism, marine resources)

More, better trained police

Improve anti-corruption structures

Strengthen prosecution & Scorpions, special courts

Intervene in crime areas-enhance normal communal life (53)

Reduce awaiting trial numbers

Improve coordination among relevant agencies

Provide efficient, safe road &rail transport (9, 26, 52)

Build more subsidised housing, medium den-sity housing closer to work & provide serviced stands


A society that truly cares & a better life for all (as in the Bill of Rights& Constitution)

Create a single & integrated economy that benefits all.

Build a healthier nation

Promote social cohesion & a non-racist, non-sexist, demo-cratic society

Improve safety & security

Help consolidate peace, security & development in southern Africa, Africa & globe & Position SA as an effective global player

Broaden access to services & constitutional rights and provide good governance

Reduce unemployment

Continue economic growth

Alleviate poverty


A society that truly cares & a better life for all (as in the Bill of Rights & Constitution)

Create a single & integrated economy that benefits all.

Reduce unemployment

Create new jobs

Facilitate creation of jobs, skills and work experience

Promote growth of small & micro-enterprises

Improve opportunities for self-employment & Promote sustainable community livelihoods

Facilitate economic activity within the second economy, Pro-mote involvement of marginalised in economic activity

Comprehensive assistance to emerging farmers, expand agricultural support programs

Ensure involvement of communities in local economic initiatives

Encourage labour intensive methods

Deal with negative impact of casualisation

Extend Expanded Public Works Program

Education system geared for productive work

Change to financial system and institutions

Provide efficient, safe transport

Reform support agencies

Skills training

Learnerships

Support micro-loan financing

Complete land restitution

Continue land reform


A society that truly cares & a better life for all (as in the Bill of Rights& Constitution)

Build a healthier nation

Complete tertiary infra-structure improvements

Improve services in health facilities

Recruit & retain health personnel

Reduce preventable causes of death-TB, diabetes, malnutrition, maternal deaths, HIV/AIDS, malaria

Expand primary school nutrition program

Comprehensive care & treatment of HIV & AIDS.

Expand primary health care


A society that truly cares & a better life for all (as in the Bill of Rights& Constitution)

Broaden access to services & constitutional rights and provide good governance

Improve state capacity for growth & develop-ment

Better interaction between govt & people

Better inter-govt. cooperation

Integrate traditional leadership

Better implemen-tation, monitoring, evaluation

Better access to govt information

Improve provision of information

Strengthen democratic institutions incl. courts

Improve services in govt

Create a compassio-nate govt service

Reduce corruption

Improve local govt capacity

Multipurpose centres, e-govt, etc.


A society that truly cares & a better life for all (as in the Bill of Rights & Constitution)

Create a single & integrated economy that benefits all.

Reduce unemployment

Alleviate poverty

Improve opportunities for self-employment & Promote sustainable community livelihoods

Improve household & community assets

Speed up delivery of water, sanitation, phones, health, electricity, housing, education

Comprehensive assistance to emerging farmers, expand agricultural support programs

Provide free basic water & electricity

Complete land restitution

Continue land reform

Links to GW M&E system

Build more subsidised housing, medium density housing closer to work& provide serviced stands

The following is the heading and definition for ALL of the indicators mentioned on this page:

Housing: These indicators measure the marginality of human living conditions

(e) Proportion of HH with access to secure tenure (owned or rented) (Target 10 Indicator 32)

(a) Proportion of population with access to an improved water source (both urban and rural) (Target 10 Indicator 30)

(b) Proportion of population with access to improved sanitation (Target 10 Indicator 31)

(c) % of gdp spent on sanitation infrastructure

(d) Proportion of households with access to electricity

(a) Percentage of population housed in informal/formal dwellings.

(b) Percentage of the population which is homeless.


A society that truly cares & a better life for all (as enshrined in the Bill of Rights, constitution)

Reduce preventable causes of death-TB, diabetes, malnutrition, maternal deaths, HIV/AIDS, malaria (9)

Complete tertiary infrastructure improvements (42)

Recruit & retain health personnel

Improve services in health facilities

Create a single & integrated economy that benefits all.

Build a healthier nation

Reduce unemployment

Continue economic growth (6, 14, 22)

Alleviate poverty

Facilitate economic activity within the second economy, Pro-mote involvement of marginalised in economic activity (27-39)

Facilitate creation of jobs, skills and work experience (27,29,32-36,43,45)

Improve opportunities for self-employment &

Promote sustainable community livelihoods (27)

Provide comprehensive social security (10) and ensure people access them (6)

Promote growth of small & micro-enterprises (30,31)

Facilitate broad-based BEE

Provide the skills re-quired by the economy (27,29,32-36,43,45)

Improve household & community assets

Create new jobs

Ensure low interest & inflation rates

Speed up rural development & urban renewal

Increase public & private of investment (24-26)

Invest in road, rail & air transport, telecommunications & energy

Speed up delivery of water, sanitation, phones, health, electricity, housing, education

Provide free basic water & electricity

Provide efficient, safe transport (9,26, 52)

Ensure involvement of communities in local economic initiatives

Comprehensive assistance to emerging farmers, expand agricultural support programs (37-39)

Allocate more resources to welfare grants for 3 yrs (44)

Skills training

Learnerships

Education system geared for productive work

Complete land restitution

Continue land reform

Improve UIF

Ensure people access grants

Encourage labour intensive methods

Extend Expanded Public Works Program (28-29)

Change to financial system and institutions

All children with decent classrooms

Spend in favour of students from poor households

Expand school nutrition program.

Introduce national health insurance

Expand primary school nutrition progm (43)

Expand primary health care (42)

Comprehensive care & treatment of HIV & AIDS.

Deal with negative impact of casualisation

Support micro-loan financing

Reform support agencies

Provide efficient, safe transport (9,26, 52)

Reduce teacher/pupil ratio

Free health service to disabled

Build more subsidised housing, medium den-sity housing closer to work & provide serviced stands


Measurement issues
Measurement issues enshrined in the Bill of Rights, constitution)

  • Simple vs composite indicators

  • Parsimonious models

  • Robust or sensitive to change

  • Local or global views

  • Error (measurement, sampling, statistical bias, interpretation)

  • Measuring (step 1) and valuing (step 2)


Some conclusions
Some conclusions… enshrined in the Bill of Rights, constitution)

  • Pervasive lack of clarity on high level objectives… value trees might be a useful tool

  • Priority. What’s that?

  • Danger of over-engineering

  • Danger of separating M&E from strategic planning (activities may not be aligned with desired outcomes)

  • Tremendous benefits of awareness created by MTEF…. but

  • Lack of quantitative/ problem solving/ modeling skills


Strategic M&E enshrined in the Bill of Rights, constitution)

There is a strong need for a common strategic planning process which is individually tailored by each department/ govt entity within the context of clear national, provincial, local objectives.


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